The Crumbling Ancient Texts That May Hold Life-Saving Cures*

The Crumbling Ancient Texts That May Hold Life-Saving Cures*

By Amy Maxmen

A page from a Timbuktu manuscript. Photograph by Amy Maxmen

 

Seven hundred years ago, Timbuktu was a dream destination for scholars, traders, and religious men. At the southern edge of the Sahara desert in what is now Mali, travelers from Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Morocco met in the bygone metropolis to exchange gold, salt, and ideas. According to a description of Timbuktu in 1526 by the diplomat Leo Africanus, “more profit is to be made there from the sale of books than from any other branch of trade.”

Bundled in camel skin, goat skin, and calf leather, the manuscripts remaining from Timbuktu’s heyday come in an array of sizes. Words from Arabic and African languages, inscribed in gold, red, and jet-black ink, line their pages. Sometimes the text assembles into triangles, or surrounds intricate, geometric designs. I stared at a few ornate pages in late 2013 as they were being photographed in an eroded cement building in Mali’s capital, Bamako. Rain pummeled the streets that day, creating pond-size puddles in the dirt road that people would wade through, ankle-deep, without flinching. Upstairs in the building, Abdel Kader Haidara told me how more than 300,000 ancient manuscripts from Timbuktu arrived in Bamako earlier that year.

Abdel Kader Haidara, executive president of the Safeguard and Valorization of Manuscripts for the Defense of Islamic Culture. Photograph by Amy Maxmen

 

Haidara wore a rust-coloured tunic that reached his ankles and a matching cap, an elegant style typical of men from northern Mali. In an office containing little except for a desk and a rickety bookshelf with a row of books with decorative Arabic across their bindings, he described how his father instructed him to respect the family’s large library. Because of private collections like his, the Timbuktu manuscripts have remained safe with their owners through the generations, rather than ruined or stolen by the parade of powers who have ruled over Timbuktu, including the French, who colonized Mali between 1892 and 1960.

In 1996, Haidara founded an organization to safeguard the manuscripts from weather damage. So when an Al Qaeda-affiliated group invaded Timbuktu last year, destroying tombs and burning any ancient manuscripts they found, Haidara was prepared to help pack his neighbours’ texts into nondescript metal trunks and load them onto donkey carts bound for Bamako. The private collections are now held at an undisclosed location in the city* where scholars might finally, for the first time, lay eyes on them.

The manuscripts were smuggled out of Timbuktu in metal trunks like this one. Eva Brozowsky, Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures, University of Hamburg.

 

Subjects in the collections, spanning the 13th through 17th century, include the Qu’ran, Sufism, philosophy, law, medicine, astronomy, and more. Haidara stresses the need for climate-controlled safe-houses for the manuscripts, so that academics can begin to study the books to learn about African history. He thinks the books might also contain information about cures for maladies that persist today.

“Every book has answers, and if you analyze them you can learn solutions,” he says.

“Everything that exists now, existed before now.”

One prime example of this constancy is a plague that has afflicted humans at least since ancient times and currently kills approximately 1.2 million people per year: malaria.

It’s not yet known whether the texts discuss malaria, but it seems likely based on other ancient texts from the region, says Nikolay Dobronravin, a scholar who studies ancient West African manuscripts at St. Petersburg State University in Russia. Dobronravin says African manuscripts contain many passages on tibb, an Arabic word meaning medicine. In one mode of tibb, a healer or teacher writes words from the Qu’ran onto a thin wooden tablet with charcoal-based ink, and the patient washes the tablet down with water. Other, less mystical treatments involve leaves and animal parts consumed as cures for various ailments.

“In the Timbuktu collections, a scholar-doctor might have his own book of recipes, comparable to what you find in a cook’s kitchen,” Dobronravin predicts.

Villagers might still use some of those herbal remedies today. In a rural, south-eastern region of Mali, I saw bundles of leaves sold in the marketplace. My translator told me that villagers boil the leaves to make teas that calm fevers.

Leaves and roots sold at a market in Mali are used to treat malaria. Photo: Amy Maxmen

 

This might sound hopeful, until you speak with mothers who have lost children to malaria. Some of them told me they opted for teas and other traditional medicines when their babies fell ill, rather than consult with nurses or doctors. Then the fevers grew worse, convulsions began, and death came swiftly. It’s unfortunately a common story, and one that makes African doctors and health workers weary of the promises of traditional medicine. Still, Haidara says, ancient recipes in the Timbuktu texts could contain forgotten cures that were lost through the ages.

A malaria scientist and doctor at the University of Dakar in Senegal, Badara Cisse, countered Haidara’s assertion by telling me,

 “In Africa, we are well behind because we love living with our past.”

He has watched children die after traditional healers promised their mothers a cure, and it has molded his drive to deliver better solutions though evidence-based science rather than by digging into history.

 “We need to be open to the new world,” Cisse says.

A page from a Timbuktu manuscript. Eva Brozowsky, Center for the Study of Manuscript Cultures, University of Hamburg.

Yet modern and traditional medicine have at times worked hand-in-hand. A case in point is the modern gold-standard treatment for malaria, artemisinin. The drug derives from the sweet wormwood plant, Artemisia annua, which is listed among other plants that treat fevers in ancient Chinese texts. It was re-discovered in the 1970s as resistance to the malaria drug chloroquine spread around the globe and malaria deaths steadily rose. To curb the death rate, Chairman Mao encouraged Chinese scientists to evaluate hundreds of folk remedies. By 1990, the teams had systematically tested several malaria therapies that included artemisinin, according to a book by historian Dana Dalrymple. In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the treatments for malaria. Finally, in 2005, the rising annual death toll from malaria began to reverse thanks to use of the wormwood-derived drug.

But a new malaria medicine may be needed in the near future if resistance to artemisinin grows. Already, a few cases of resistance have emerged in southeast Asia. Perhaps a clue lies in the Timbuktu texts, but to find it, scholars and researchers must be able to study their pages. As of now, the manuscripts degrade more with each passing year. Haidara has only a few shields to stave off age, moisture, insects, and fungi. To save the books, he and his colleagues rely on funds raised through an Indiegogo page and other private donations, such as a grant from the New York-based Ford Foundation.

Endlessly shifting sands have eroded what was once the golden metropolis of Timbuktu, just as the rain washes away roads outside of Haidara’s headquarters on the day I visit. The manuscripts may contain knowledge that can save thousands of lives, if scholars and scientists reach them before they dissolve into the past, leaving future generations to scour the plant world all over again.

Source*

Related Topics:

The French Patent an African Indigenous Plant (anti-cancerous)*

African Trees Kill Both Malaria Mosquitoes and the Parasite*

The Sahrawi of Morocco: When Medicine is What is Within Your Hands

Amazonian Elders Conclude Completion of First Indigenous Medical Encyclopaedia*

Amazonian Hunter-Gatherers Isolated from Western Medicine Have the Most Diverse Microbiome Ever Recorded*

More Teens Dying from Prescribed Drugs than Illegal Drugs*

Death By Prescribed Drugs*

Tennessee Counties Sue Opioid Makers Using Local “Crack Tax” Law*

 

Interactive Map Reveals the Horrific History of Lynching in the United States*

Interactive Map Reveals the Horrific History of Lynching in the United States*

“Today’s police shootings of unarmed African-American men and the mass incarceration of black people are a legacy of slavery and lynching.”

Google.org — Google’s philanthropic arm —partnered with the Equal Justice Initiative, a non-profit dedicated to fighting for racial civil rights and created an interactive website showing the dark and harrowing history of lynching in the United States. The website reads:

Lynching in America was a form of terrorism that has contributed to a legacy of racial inequality that our nation must address more directly and concretely than we have to date. The trauma and anguish that lynching and racial violence created in this country continues to haunt us and to contaminate race relations and our criminal justice system in too many places across this country.

Apart from an interactive map that chronicles almost every documented lynching against African-Americans between the 1830s and 1960s, the website provides audio stories, photos, videos, and an extensive 77-page report of one of the ugliest parts of American history.

“This site features painful stories of America’s history of racial injustice. In order to heal the deep wounds of our present, we must face the truth of our past. After slavery was formally abolished, lynching emerged as a vicious tool of racial control to reestablish white supremacy and suppress black civil rights.

More than 4,000 African Americans were lynched across twenty states between 1877 and 1950. These lynching were public acts of racial terrorism, intended to instill fear in entire black communities. Government officials frequently turned a blind eye or condoned the mob violence. The effects of racial terror lynching are still felt today.”

Bryan Stevenson, founder and executive director of the Equal Justice Initiative, says the goal of the project titled Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror is to “spark a national dialogue about a subject that is too rarely discussed yet is crucial to understanding racism today.”

“Today’s police shootings of unarmed African-American men and the mass incarceration of black people are a legacy of slavery and lynching. Black people are seen through a lens of racial difference that presumes their guilt, resulting in wrongful arrests, convictions and death sentences.

“I think our history has created a kind of smog that we all breathe in. We don’t even talk about the fact that we are living in a polluted environment that has been corrupted by this history of all kinds of racial inequality. We want to change how we think about this era in America.”

Source*

Related Topics:

Trauma Has Trickled Down for Generations*

U.N. Team ‘Concerned’ About African Americans*

African-American Autism and Vaccines*

CDC Admits MMR Vaccine Increases Autism Risk, Particularly in African American Boys.

African-American Women and Childbirth

Africa’s Auschwitz: The Concentration Camp the West Erased from History*

The U.S. is Waging a Massive Shadow War in Africa, Exclusive Documents Reveal*

James Baldwin Issues a Wake-Up Call to Black America*

African Woman Schools U.N. Delegate on Why Pushing Abortion is ‘neo-colonialism’*

Police Killing Indigenous Americans at Astounding Rate*

‘We Charge Genocide’: Systematic Murder & Oppression of Blacks Continues in U.S.*

 

 

WHO Admits Vaccines Caused Polio Paralysis in ISIS Regions*

WHO Admits Vaccines Caused Polio Paralysis in ISIS Regions*

Polio has paralyzed 17 children in the Mayadin and Raqqa regions. Both areas are located in ISIS-controlled regions.

There are now 14 new cases in the region. This is the first outbreak of Polio in the region since 2014.

The WHO has stated that the first symptoms began to emerge back in March.

The WHO performed lab tests which have shown the cases are “vaccine-derived,” which means the outbreak is confirmed to be caused by the polio vaccines carrying live viruses.

So how does this happen? It requires the live virus to pass through the intestines and into the water supply. When the water supply is rooted in contaminated, unclean sources, it allows the virus to spread. However, the WHO is blaming what’s known as “herd immunity,” saying that under-immunization is to blame. Their logic is that if more kids were vaccinated, the live virus spreading through the water system wouldn’t be relevant.

According to the BBC.

“Mr Jasarevic said the outbreak meant there was significant under-immunisation in the Mayadin area, and that in response the WHO planned to vaccinate 90,000 children under the age of five there and 320,000 others elsewhere in Deir al-Zour.

“We are very worried, because obviously if there is already one case of polio of a kid that is paralysed it’s already an outbreak,” he warned.

“We know for example that for one kid that is paralysed there are almost 200 asymptomatic so it means that virus circulating, so it is very serious.”

Here’s the thing: Wouldn’t it make sense to donate billions to clean water supplies? That seems like a pretty logical way to solve this issue. Instead, the “solve” is more vaccines with more live viruses pouring out into sewage waters. You never know how this might end, make sure you have your bug out bag essentials ready.

Source*

Related Topics:

U.N. Vaccine Program has Deliberately Killed Syrian Kids*

Death by Vaccine: 34 Syrian Children Die*

War on Syria Unofficial, Unabated and Eugenic (Vaccines)*

E.U. Court Rules in Favour of Vaccine Injury Based on Evidence*

Polio Vaccine Refusal Cases among Well-educated People Baffle Officials in Pakistan*

Vaccine-derived Polio Spreading in “Polio-free” India*

Doctors Say Bill Gates Polio Vaccine Has Created Deadly ‘Super Polio’*

How Biotechnology has Made Global Polio Eradication Impossible*

WHO Admitted Smallpox Vaccine Caused AIDS after Requesting It*

Eugenics of the UN, WHO and World Bank in Mexico*

The WHO’s Private Vaccine Laboratory*

I’m a Pakistani Hindu. So what Business do I have Missing Eid?

I’m a Pakistani Hindu. So what Business do I have Missing Eid?

By Nisha Pinjani

Last summer during Ramadhan, I shared the Shan Masala Eid commercial like Pakistanis all over the world. The ad showed two brothers spending the occasion away from home. For the purposes of the advert, a simple plate of Sindhi biryani was the balm to their feeling of homesickness.

This year, I found myself in the characters’ shoes.

Away from Pakistan for my graduate studies in Honolulu, Hawaii, I was scrolling through Facebook when I found the usual Eid-related posts flooding my timeline.

Unending stories about tailors and broken promises, event pages for chand raat meet­-ups, and the perpetual confusion on whether the next day would be Eid or another Roza (followed promptly by jokes at the Ruet­-i-­Hilal committee’s expense).

Soon enough, WhatsApp groups were abuzz with ‘Chand Mubarak’ wishes. While my friends in Karachi made plans to grab chai on the eve before Eid, I was literally stuck on an island. Sitting alone in my dorm room, I couldn’t help but feel blue — I missed home, my friends and my family.

I found myself thinking back to the Shan commercial. But while the ad’s protagonist and I were experiencing similar homesickness, we were quite dissimilar. He was a Muslim man from Pakistan; I am Pakistani Hindu woman.

What business do I have missing Eid?

Growing up as a Hindu in an Islamic republic is full of contradictions. My mother is often hesitant and wary of my Muslim friends. A bit strange, considering she is more than happy if I invite them to our home.

Perhaps this perplexing attitude is passed down through generations. As a young girl I loved listening to my grandfather’s partition stories. He would tell us incidents where Muslims went door-to-door killing any Hindu in sight (I’m sure Muslims grow up with similar stories of cold-blooded Hindus).

But then, he would also talk about his Muslim neighbours. The ones who protected our family, who made a human chain around our house when the riots broke out.

The obvious takeaway here was that good and bad people exist everywhere. But my grandfather’s stories carried an underlying warning: you can get close to Muslims, but remember that you are not one of them (and they know it too).

Following this tradition of mixed messages, every Ramadhan, many Hindus living in Pakistan fast. My mother herself happily sets an alarm to wake my sister up for sehri. She prepares an elaborate sehri, and reminiscent of the Thadri festival — where Hindus fast — her fried lolis make an appearance at the table.

No one else in my house wakes up with them, but we make it a point to join in for Iftar, and jokingly try to convince my sister that eating five minutes before the adhan is acceptable.

And then comes Eid. At least in Pakistan, Eid and Diwali have much in common. Both are marked by an abundance of mithai. It is customary to wear new clothes if one can afford them, and like Eidi on Eid, it is traditional to give presents on Diwali too. Every year, my family welcomes our friends over for Diwali, and come Eid, we visit our Muslim friends’ houses.

Yet, each time a story breaks of another Hindu girl being kidnapped and forcefully converted, my interactions with male Muslim friends start causing my mother distress. “Be careful around Muslim boys,” she warns me. It is frustrating, but I can see where she is coming from.

When I heard news of the Hindu reporter in Karachi who was forced to drink from a separate glass, my blood boiled. Sitting thousands of miles away, I was instantly transported back to my childhood when something similar happened to me (and I am sure, many religious minorities like me): a classmate had refused to share utensils with me because I was Hindu.

Children’s acts are a reflection of what they are taught at home. Many years later, seeing this news was a bitter reminder that even among supposedly educated, well-knowing adults, prejudice is alive and well.

The white in the flag

I have long known that despite having the same nationality, my Muslim friends back home and I are different in many ways.

During Pakistan Studies classes in school, teachers would make irresponsible claims about how Hindus were single-handedly responsible for the loss of Muslim lives. Reduced to a ‘cow-worshipper’ during the lectures, I would suddenly be othered, excluded, bullied.

As I grew up, my ‘otherness’ interestingly became exotic. The same identity I had been bullied over now became my ticket to being a ‘cool kid’— since I had access to all the firecrackers (thank you, Diwali), and invitations to holi parties.

As we grew up underneath the layers of systemically taught hate, my Muslim friends and I began to find common ground, and developed a better understanding of each other. I would sneak them into our temples so they could get a glimpse of my world, and accompany them to Mughal­ era mosques to get a sense of theirs.

I still come across a simpleton or two who wants me to prove my Pakistani-ness. Every time Pakistan plays a cricket match against India, there is always that one guy who wants to know, “How come you’re not supporting the Indian team instead?”

Thankfully, more often than not, my friends take over the task of shutting such bigotry down.

I keep thinking back to my family enjoying their long Eid break in Pakistan. We are a huge family, and most of my cousins are older, working people. On Diwali (a working day for most Pakistani Hindus until recently) we are usually only able to manage a dinner, however, the longer Eid holidays are quality family time for us.

During Eid, we get together at a farmhouse or the beach. We laze around playing cards, barbecuing, and catching up on gossip. Eid mornings mean waking up to seviyan and other breakfast treats, with my uncles over, watching the news and discussing the current state of affairs in Karachi.

Away from home, I find myself missing it all. Whether it is the memory of spending time with my family by the waves; or the calming sound of the adhan; or Eid plans with my friends to get mehendi.

Home, after all, is home, no matter how dysfunctional.

And so, on the first day of Eid in Hawaii, not unlike the characters in the Shan Masala advert, I picked up a packet of seviyan from a desi store here. I looked up the recipe online, managing to burn half the packet, and cursed myself for never waking up early with my mother to help out.

But my friends came over and made custard and fruit salad. I ended up spending the day recreating what Eid has always been about for me back home in Pakistan: good company, laughter, and a satisfied stomach. It was heartening watching my American friends try seviyan for the first time, while assuring them that the delicacy is indeed supposed to look semi-charred.

Source*

Related Topics:

Muslims Across the World Celebrate Eid Al-Fitr*

Jeremy Corbyn Praises Muslim Heroes of Grenfell Tower fire in Eid Message*

U.S.-led Coalition Killed Nearly 500 Civilians in Syria during Ramadhan*

These 5 People don’t Spend Eid with their Families to make the Occasion Happier for Us*

Eid Mubarak- final Ramadan Reflection 2011

Demonetisation 2.0: Indian Businesses Brace for Biggest-ever Tax Reform*

Demonetisation 2.0: Indian Businesses Brace for Biggest-ever Tax Reform*

Businessman Pankaj Jain is so worried about the impending launch of a new sales tax in India that he is thinking of shutting down his tiny textile factory for a month to give himself time to adjust.

Jain is one of millions of small business owners who face wrenching change from India’s biggest tax reform since independence that will unify the country’s $2 trillion economy and 1.3 billion people into a common market.

But he is simply not ready for a regime that from July 1 will for the first time tax the bed linen his 10 workers make, and require him to file his taxes every month online.

On the desk in his tiny office in Meerut, two hours drive northeast of New Delhi, lay two calculators. Turning to open a metal cabinet, he pulled out a hand-written ledger to show how he keeps his books.

“We will have to hire an accountant – and get a computer,” the thickset 52-year-old told Reuters, as a dozen ancient power looms clattered away in the ramshackle workshop next door.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government says that by replacing several federal and state taxes, the new Goods and Services Tax (GST) will make life simpler for business.

To drive home the point, Bollywood superstar Amitabh Bachchan has appeared in a promotional video in which he weaves a cat’s cradle between the fingers of his hands – symbolising India’s thicket of old taxes.

With a flourish, the tangle is gone and Bachchan proclaims: “One nation, one tax, one market!”

Not so simple

By tearing down barriers between India’s 29 states, the GST should deliver efficiency gains to larger businesses. HSBC estimates the reform could add 0.4% to economic growth.

Yet at the local chapter of the Indian Industries Association, which groups 6,500 smaller enterprises nationwide, the talk is about how to cope in the aftermath of the GST rollout.

“In the initial months, there may be utter confusion,” said chairman Ashok Malhotra, who runs one firm that manufactures voltage stabilisers and a second that makes timing equipment for boxing contests.

A big concern is the Indian GST’s sheer complexity – with rates of 5%, 12%, 18% and 28%, and myriad exceptions, it contrasts with simpler, flatter and broader sales taxes in other countries.

The official schedule of GST rates runs to 213 pages and has undergone repeated last-minute changes. “Rubber goods are taxed at 12%; sporting goods at 18%.

I make rubber sporting goods so what tax am I supposed to pay?” asks Anurag Agarwal, the local IIA secretary.

Grace period?

The top government official responsible for coordinating the GST rollout rebuts complaints from bosses that the tax is too complex, adding that the IT back-end that will drive it – crunching up to 5 billion invoices a month – is robust.

“It is a technological marvel, as well as a fiscal marvel,” Revenue Secretary Hasmukh Adhia told Reuters in an interview.

The government will, however, allow firms to file simplified returns for July and August.

From September they must file a total of 37 online returns annually – three each month and one at the year’s end – for each state they operate in.

One particular concern is how a new feature of the GST, the input tax credit, will work. This allows a company to claim refunds on its inputs and means it should only pay tax on the value it adds.

The structure will encourage companies to buy from suppliers that are GST-compliant, so that tax credits can flow down a supply chain.

That spells bad news for small firms hesitating to shift into the formal economy.

The government estimates smaller companies account for 45% of manufacturing and employ more than 117 million people.

Adhia played down the risk of job losses, however, saying this would be offset by new service sector jobs.

Demonetisation 2.0

The prospect of disruption is drawing comparisons with Modi’s decision last November to scrap high-value bank notes that made up 86% of the cash in circulation, in a bid to purge illicit “black money” from the system.

The note ban caused severe disruption to India’s cash-driven economy and slammed the brakes on growth, which slowed to a two-year low in the quarter to March.

“It could throw the business out of gear – it can affect your volumes by at least 30%,” said the head of one large cement company in the Delhi region.

Back in Meerut, Pankaj Jain worries that hiring an accountant and charging 5% GST on his bedsheets could eat up to two-thirds of his annual profits of 400,000-500,000 rupees ($6,210-$7,760).

“I know my costs will go up, but I don’t know about my income,” he said.

“I might even have to shut up shop completely and go into trading.”

Source*

Related Topics:

The New Imperial Roman Empire*

In the Move towards a Cashless Society India’s GDP Growth Slumps*

IMF Issue Working Paper on Eliminating Cash*

Congress Want to make it Illegal to Hold cash, Bitcoin, or Other Assets outside of a Bank*

E.U. Picks Up Speed in the War on Cash*

E.U. Desperate to Raises Taxes Starts Cashless Society Project November 2017*

How Greece Became a Guinea Pig for a Cashless and Controlled Society*

 

East London Muslim Girls’ School Judged Outstanding by Ofsted*

East London Muslim Girls’ School Judged Outstanding by Ofsted*

Eden Girls’ School

A Muslim girls’ school in East London has been judged to be “outstanding” by education inspectors Ofsted in its first inspection.

The East London & West Essex Guardian reports that Ofsted praised teachers at Eden Girls’ School in Walthamstow, saying they were prepared to “do whatever it takes to ensure that pupils achieve well, academically and socially.”

The Islamic secondary school opened in 2014 and currently has over 300 pupils in Years 7 to 10. A sixth form is expected to open next year.

Inspectors visited the school in April and noted the girls’ “behaviour is impeccable” and their attendance is high. It also said that students make “rapid progress” which is above the national average in all subjects.

The school received “outstanding” ratings in all categories such as effectiveness of leadership and management, quality of teaching, learning and assessment and outcome for pupils.

The report said that parents expressed a “high level of satisfaction” with the teachers’ commitment to the students. It noted the staff’s alertness to safeguarding concerns means pupils are “safe from harm.”

Shahina Ahmad, Principal, said:

 “We are naturally delighted to have been awarded the highest possible Ofsted rating. It’s a reflection of the dedication and hard work of all our staff, governors and pupils and also their parents’ support.

“What is incredibly pleasing are the inspectors’ very positive comments about our leadership programme. For Eden Girls’ to be recognised as a school that is equipping its pupils with the values and skills to have a fully participative role in modern Britain makes me very proud.”

The school is run by Tauheedul Education Trust (TET), a not-for-profit multi-academy trust.

Source*

Related Topics:

Blackburn Muslim Schools Come Top of U.K. Education Progress Table*

£1000 to be Awarded to U.K. Muslim Students for Academic Excellence Third Year Running*

It Took a Nine-year-old Muslim Boy 35 Seconds to Rumble Theresa May*

Muslims Launch the World’s First Islamic Sign Language Book*

Muslim Schools Continue to Surpass National GCSE Average*

Why the West is Terrified of Muslims Reading History…*

U.S.-led Coalition Killed Nearly 500 Civilians in Syria during Ramadhan*

U.S.-led Coalition Killed Nearly 500 Civilians in Syria during Ramadhan*

The U.S.-led coalition has killed nearly 500 civilians in Syria during the month of Ramadhan in its military campaign against ISIS.

Around 470 civilians, including 137 children, were killed in air strikes in ISIS-held cities of Deir Ez-zor and Raqqa in eastern Syria between May 23 and June 23.

The U.K.-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said the period saw the highest civilian death toll in U.S. bombing campaigns for a single month since they began on 23 September 2014.

The figure has more than doubled from the previous 30-day toll.

SOHR claim the number is higher than those killed by Russian airstrikes and President Bashar al-Assad’s forces during the same period.

SOHR’s director, Rami Abdel Rahman, said that the new deaths brought the overall civilian toll from the US-coalition’s campaign in Syria to 1,953, including 333 women and 456 children.

Human rights groups have warned for months of the increasing human cost of the U.S.-coalition’s bombing campaign, particularly as the battle for ISIS’s capital of Raqqa intensifies.

The U.S., Britain, France and other coalition members have provided air support for their allies Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) on the ground.

The coalition has stated on numerous occasions that it takes vigorous precautions to avoid killing civilians, but local residents say they have become collateral damage.

In March, more than 200 mainly children and women were reported to have been killed while they sought refuge in a school in the village of Mansoura.

Shockingly high civilian death tolls are also being reported in the Iraqi city of Mosul, where the battle to defeat ISIS is in its final stages.

Source*

Related Topics:

Father Daniel in Syria: “There Never Was a Popular Uprising in Syria”*

Rothschild’s Israel Pushes Russia and U.S. Towards Nuclear Confrontation Over Syria*

Syria’s More Confident Assad gives Eid Prayers in Hama*

Israel Paying Syrian ‘Rebels’ to Protect Rothschild, Murdoch Oil*

Ron Paul: Why The Hell Are We Attacking Syrians Fighting ISIS?*

Australia Halts Airstrikes in Syria*

Russia Threatens to Target U.S.-Led Coalition Planes in Syria

Cabal’s New Tool Measures Resilience in Adolescent Syrian Refugees*

Turkish MP Sentenced to 25 Years for Exposing MIT Arms Aid to Terrorists in Syria*

Syrian Troops Move Closer to Raqqa as the U.S. Drops Chemical Weapons on the Citizens*

What the Media Won’t Tell You about Syria*