Egyptian Youth form national coalition by Wael Ghonim
Egypt’s Interim Constitution
19th March 2011 was the day of the referendum of amendments to the Constitution. The air was electric, but the days since then fell auspiciously quiet. 25% of the 40 million voting population voted – above normal, but still was not a good reflection. There was a 70+% “Yes” for the amendments without knowledge of the whole constitution. Those who voted “No” to the constitutional amendments, did so for many reasons including the desire to see a completely new constitution reflective of the January 25th Revolution. The “No” votes were as follows:
- Cairo 39.48%
- Alexandria 32.87%
- El Sharkiya 13.35%
- El Minya 23.37%
- El Dakahlia 20.28%
- El Beheira 12.28%
- El Kalyoubeya 18.99%
- El Gharbiya 21.1%
- El Giza 31.82%
- Assiut 26.54%
- El Mounifeya 13.35%
- Sohag 21.35%
- Helwan 27.98%
- 6th October 15.58%
- Ben Sueif 12.52%
- Kafr El Sheikh 12.08%
- El Fayoum 9.75%
- Qena 13.91%
- Dumyat 17.22%
- Ismalia 22.11%
- Aswan 17.12%
- Port Said 29.20%
- Luxor 18.47%
- Suez 21.16%
- Red Sea 36.62%
- Marsa Matruh 7.58%
- North Sinai 13.76%
- El Wadi El Gedid 9.05%
- South Sinai 33.06%
It appears the Armed Forces were listening as they issued an interim constitution on Wednesday 30th March 2011, which allows the council to retain control over the country until an elected government is installed. This allayed fears that perceived that the amendments formed a part of the previous constitution thus legitimizing the old regime, and Mubarak’s NDP without a spring clean on the whole government down to local councils – the root of corruption.
Since the announcement that the previous constitution has been discarded, and an interim constitution has been put in place, the air has lifted with signs of hope, but it is minus the right to protest, a denial of right that is spreading in some Western countries.
The interim constitution invests the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces with presidential powers, including the right to introduce legislation (hopefully with the people’s consent), veto existing laws and act as Egypt’s representative with the international community. The Interim Constitution in its entirety has been published in all state newspapers.
The Interim Constitution
We, the people of Egypt, who have been toiling on this glorious land since the dawn of history and civilization, we the people working in Egypt’s villages, fields, cities, factories, centers of education and industry in any field of work which contributes to the creation of life on its soil or plays a part in the honour of defending this land
We, the people who believe in its spiritual and immortal heritage and who are confident in our profound faith and cherish the honour of man and of humanity at large,
We, the people who in addition to preserving the legacy of history, bear the responsibility of great present and future objectives whose seeds are embedded in the long and arduous struggle, with which the banners of liberty, socialism and unity have been hoisted along the great march of the Arab Nation,
We, the Egyptian people, in the name of God and with His assistance pledge to indefinitely and unconditionally exert every effort to realise:-
Peace to our world
Being determined that peace can only be based on justice and that political and social progress of all peoples can only be realized through the freedom and independent will of these peoples, and that any civilization is not worthy of its name unless it is free from exploitation whatever its form.
The hope of our Arab Nation being certain that Arab Unity is a call of history and future and an inevitable destiny which can only materialize through an Arab Nation capable of warding off any threat whatever may be the source or the pretexts justifying it.
The Constant Development Of Life In Our Nation
Being convinced that the true challenge confronting nations is the realization of progress and that such progress does not occur automatically or through slogans alone, but that the driving force behind it is the release of all potentials of creativity and originality in our people, who have asserted at all times their contribution to civilization and humanity through work alone.
Our people have passed through successive experiences, meantime offering rich experiences on both the national and international levels, by which they have been guided. These experiences finally took shape in the basic documentations of the July, 23rd Revolution led by the alliance of the working forces of our struggling people . This people have been able, through deep awareness and refined sensibility, to retain the genuine core of this revolution and to continuously rectify its path and to realize through it full integration between science and faith, political and social freedom, national independence and affiliation on the one hand and the worldwide struggle of humanity for political economic, cultural and intellectual freedom and the fight against all forces and remnants of regression domination and exploitation on the other hand.
Freedom For The Humanity Of The Egyptian Man
Having realized that man’s humanity and dignity are the torches that guide and direct the course of the enormous development of mankind towards its supreme ideals.
The dignity of every individual is natural reflection of the dignity of his nation, for each individual is a cornerstone in the edifice of the homeland. This homeland derives its strength and prestige from the value of each individual, his activity and dignity.
The sovereignty of law is not only a guarantee for the freedom of the individual but is also the sole basis for the legality of authority.
The alliance of the popular working forces is not a means for social conflict towards historical development, it is , in this modern age, with its climate and ways , a safety valve protecting the unity of the working powers of the nation and eliminating contradictions within these forces through democratic interaction .
We the working masses of the people of Egypt – out of determination, confidence and faith in all our national and international responsibilities, and in acknowledgment of God’s right and His messages, and in recognition of the right of our nation as well as of the principle and responsibility of mankind, and in the name of God and with His assistance – declare on the Eleventh of September 1971 that we accept and grant ourselves this Constitution, asserting our firm determination to defend and protect it, assuring our respect for it.
The Interim Constitution
Chapter One: The State
Chapter 2. Pt. 1 Social and Moral Constituents
Chapter 2 Pt. 2 Social + Economic Constituents
Chapter 3 Public Freedoms, Rights + Duties
Chapter Four: Sovereignty of the Law
Chapter 5 Pt1 The Head of State
Part Two: The People’s Assembly
Part Three: The Executive Authority
Part Four: The Judiciary Authority
Part Five: The Supreme Constitutional Court
Part Six: The Socialist Public Prosecutor
Part Seven: The Armed Forces and The National Defense Council
Part Eight: The Police
Chapter Six: General and Transitional Provisions
Chapter Seven: Part One: The Shoura Assembly
Part Two: The Press Authority
The People’s Democracy Stands Vindicated
Egypt: Draft Proposal of the Constitutional Reform
Egyptian Armed Forces Have Taken Power
Statements of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Statement from the Youth of the Lotus Revolution