Ashkenazi Jews are Genetically European
By Tia Ghose
The origin of the Ashkenazi Jews, who come most recently from Europe, has largely been shrouded in mystery. But a new study suggests that at least their maternal lineage may derive largely from Europe.
Though the finding may seem intuitive, it contradicts the notion that European Jews mostly descend from people who left Israel and the Middle East around 2,000 years ago. Instead, a substantial proportion of the population originates from local Europeans who converted to Judaism, said study co-author Martin Richards, an archaeogeneticist at the University of Huddersfield in England.
Little is known about the history of Ashkenazi Jews before they were expelled from the Mediterranean and settled in what is now Poland (homeland of German Chancellor Merkel’s father) around the 12th century. On average, all Ashkenazi Jews are genetically as closely related to each other as fourth or fifth cousins, said Dr. Harry Ostrer, a pathology, pediatrics and genetics professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York and the author of Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People (Oxford University Press, 2012).
But depending on whether the lineage gets traced through maternal or paternal DNA or through the rest of the genome, researchers got very different answers for whether Ashkenazi originally came from Europe or the Near East.
Past research found that 50% to 80% of DNA from the Ashkenazi Y chromosome, which is used to trace the male lineage, originated in the Near East, Richards said. That supported a story wherein Jews came from Israel and largely eschewed intermarriage when they settled in Europe.
But historical documents tell a slightly different tale. Based on accounts such as those of Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, by the time of the destruction of the Second Temple in A.D. 70, as many as 6 million Jews were living in the Roman Empire, but outside Israel, mainly in Italy and Southern Europe. In contrast, only about 500,000 lived in Judea, said Ostrer, who was not involved in the new study.
“The major Jewish communities were outside Judea,” Ostrer told LiveScience.
Richards and his colleagues analyzed mitochondrial DNA, which is contained in the cytoplasm of the egg and passed down only from the mother, from more than 3,500 people throughout the Near East, the Caucasus and Europe, including Ashkenazi Jews.
The team found that four founders were responsible for 40% of Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA, and that all of these founders originated in Europe. The majority of the remaining people could be traced to other European lineages.
All told, more than 80% of the maternal lineages of Ashkenazi Jews could be traced to Europe, with only a few lineages originating in the Near East.
Virtually none came from the North Caucasus, located along the border between Europe and Asia between the Black and Caspian seas.
The finding should thoroughly debunk one of the most questionable, but still tenacious, hypotheses: that most Ashkenazi Jews can trace their roots to the mysterious Khazar Kingdom that flourished during the ninth century in the region between the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire, Richards and Ostrer said.
The genetics suggest many of the founding Ashkenazi women were actually converts from local European populations.
“The simplest explanation was that it was mainly women who converted and they married with men who’d come from the Near East,” Richards told LiveScience.
Another possibility is that Jews actively converted both men and women among local populations at this time, although researchers would need more detailed study of paternal lineages to test that hypothesis, Richards said.
The Jews have been well known for hiding their origins, which probably arose out of the persecution they faced in Europe. DNA analysis on the origins of the Ashkenazem began in the 1990s when Dr. Karl Skorecki, a Canadian nephrologist of Ashkenazi parentage, noticed that a fellow-congregant of Sephardi parentage, who was a Kohen like him, had completely different physical features. Apparently, all Kohanim are descended from the priest Aaron, brother of Moses. Skorecki reasoned that if Kohanim were indeed the descendants of only one man, they should, at least on the paternal line, have a common set of genetic markers and possibly resemble each other.
It is generally understood that that the kunya ‘Askenazim’ was a derived name given to those who lived along the Rhine in Germany. They spoke Yiddish, a Germanic language written in the modern Hebrew alphabet (which has no relationship to ancient Hebrew) using Aramaic, Slavic and Hebrew words.
Ironically, Ashkenaz is a Biblical place name (Genesis 10:3, Jeremiah 51: 27) – Mount Ararat, Armenia. But Ashkenaz in the Biblical place reference was the nephew of Magog, one of the symbolic guardians of the gates of Britain paraded at the Lord Mayor’s show.
Apparently the Ashkenazim are about 80% of the world’s Jewish population with most Jewish Americans are Ashkenazim in origin from Eastern Europe, but in the 11th century, they were only 3% of the world’s Jewish population.
Daniel Elazar at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs summarized the demographic history of Ashkenazi Jews in the last thousand years that
- 11th century, 97% of world Jewry was Sephardic and 3% Ashkenazi
- mid-17th century, “Sephardim still outnumbered Ashkenazim three to two”
- 18th century, “Ashkenazim outnumbered Sephardim three to two, the result of improved living conditions in Christian Europe versus the Ottoman Muslim world.”
- By 1931, Ashkenazi Jews accounted for nearly 92% of world Jewry
So what happened to the Sephardic Jews?
One account given was made on August 14, at 9pm 2009, Israeli television station, Channel Ten where a documentary film called, 100,000 Radiations Dimona Productions Ltd (Dimona being the name of Israel’s nuclear facility) was played. The revelation – Zionists (the Ashkenzi) radiated 100,000 Sefardic Jewish children.
In 1951, the director general of the Israeli Health Ministry, Dr. Chaim Sheba flew to America and returned with 7 x-ray machines, supplied to him by the American army.
They were to be used in a mass atomic experiment with an entire generation of Sephardi youths. Every Sephardi child was to be given 35,000 times the maximum dose of x-rays through his head. The maximum dose to be given a child in Israel was .5 rad. For doing so, the American government paid the Israeli government 300,000 Israeli liras a year. The entire Health budget was 60,000 liras. The money paid by the Americans is equivalent to billions of dollars today.
To fool the parents of the victims, the children were taken away on “school trips” and their parents were later told the x-rays were a treatment for the scourge of scalpal ringworm. 6,000 of the children died shortly after their doses were given, the many of the rest developed cancers that killed them over time. While living, the victims suffered from disorders such as epilepsy, amnesia, Alzheimer’s disease, chronic headaches and psychosis.
The viewing was followed by a panel discussion moderated by TV host Dan Margalit. One of the members of the panel was a Moroccan Jew – a victim. Moroccan Jews had the highest percentage of Sephardic Jews at that time.
“I screamed make the headache go away. Make the headache go away. Make the headache go away. But it never went away.”
To watch the bearded man walk hunched down the street.
“I’m in my fifties and everyone thinks I’m in my seventies. I have to stoop when I walk so I won’t fall over. They took my youth away with those x-rays.”
Another member of the panel was David Deri:
“I was in class and the men came to take us on a tour. They asked our names. The Ashkenazi children were told to return to their seats. The dark children were put on the bus.”
Their eugenics agenda is carried on Ethiopian Jews today!
The Ashkenazim are at risk themselves because they have a higher risk of
- Crohn’s disease
- pancreatic cancer
- breast cancer
- Tay-Sachs disease
From the Ashkenazi Jews came
- the Hasidic movement
- Jewish academic centers across Poland, Russia, and Lithuania
Ashkenazi Jews have made up the majority of the American Jewish community since 1750.
It is the Ashkenazim who have ruled Israel since its creation in 1948 at the auspices of the Rothschild dynasty.
The following is an excerpt from a New York Times article published in 1996:
“Arching over these questions is the central mystery of just where the Jews of Eastern Europe came from. Many historians believe that there were not nearly enough Jews in Western Europe to account for the huge population that later flourished in Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine and nearby areas.
“By reconstructing the Yiddish mother tongue, linguists hope to plot the migration of the Jews and their language with a precision never possible before.”It has even been suggested, on the basis of linguistic evidence, that the Jews of Eastern Europe were not predominantly part of the diaspora from the Middle East, but were members of another ethnic group that adopted Judaism.
“…One linguist has recently argued that Yiddish began as a Slavic language that was ‘relexified,’ with most of its vocabulary replaced with German words.
“…Even more troublesome are demographic studies indicating that during the Middle Ages there were no more than 25,000 to 35,000 Jews in Western Europe. These figures are hard to reconcile with other studies showing that by the 17th century there were hundreds of thousands of Jews in Eastern Europe.
“…Some scholars believe the roots of Yiddish, and even the Ashkenazic people themselves, lie much farther east. In his 1976 book, The Thirteenth Tribe, Arthur Koestler made the startling suggestion, never taken seriously by linguists, that the Eastern European Jews were not really Semitic — that they were largely descended from the Turkish Khazars, who converted en masse to Judaism in medieval times.
Koestler was an Ashkenazim found dead in his home with his wife.
Ghose, T “Surprise: Ashkenazi Jews are genetically European” sott.net/article/267238-Surprise-Ashkenazi-Jews-are-genetically-European
Pinto, N “Ashkenazi Jews” jewishness.bellevueholidayrentals.com/ashkenazi_jews.html
“Ringworm Children:Zionists/Nazis radiated over 100,000 Jewish Children in Israel”