Archive | February 9, 2014

Barclays Allowed for the ‘Liberation’ of Personal Details of 27,000 Customers*

Barclays Allowed for the ‘Liberation’ of Personal Details of 27,000 Customers*

By Ian Gallagher and Stephanie Condron and Simon Watkins

Barclays Bank is reeling from an unprecedented security breach after thousands of confidential customer files were stolen and sold on to rogue City traders.

In the worst case of data loss from a British High Street bank, highly sensitive information, including customers’ earnings, savings, mortgages, health issues and insurance policies, ended up in the hands of unscrupulous brokers.

The data ‘gold mine’ – also containing passport and national insurance numbers – is worth millions on the black market because it allowed unsuspecting individuals to be targeted in investment scams.

Barclays last night launched an urgent investigation and promised to co-operate with police.

It is not clear how the records were stolen, but the bank could face an unlimited fine if found guilty of putting customers’ details at risk.

The leak was exposed by an anonymous whistleblower who passed The Mail on Sunday a memory stick containing files on 2,000 of the bank’s customers.

He claimed it was a sample from a stolen database of up to 27,000 files, which he said could be sold by shady salesmen for up to £50 per file.

‘This is the worst [leak] I’ve come across by far,’ said the  former commodity broker. ‘But this illegal trade is going on all the time in the City. I want to go public to stop it getting bigger.’

Under the guidance of lawyers, this newspaper has viewed a small selection of the files, which are effectively stolen goods. Each report is about 20 pages long, and among the victims are doctors, businessmen, scientists, a musician and a cleaner.

Barclays, which was fined £290 million in 2012 for its part in the Libor rigging scandal, said it would contact the customers as soon as possible.

The loss is a breach of its obligation under the Data Protection Act to keep personal information secure.

One of the victims, 69-year-old Janice Snowling, from Maldon, Essex, said: ‘I’m really angry. I think we should get some sort of compensation. It’s outrageous. The banking industry is the pits.’

All the customers had sought financial advice from the bank, and passed on their details during meetings with an adviser. The consultations included filling out questionnaires – or ‘psychometric tests’ – which revealed their attitude to risk.

That information could be exploited to persuade victims to buy into questionable investments.

‘The data is a gold mine for traders because it is so incredibly detailed. It gets them inside the customer’s head,’ said the whistleblower, who is prepared to make a statement to police.

Until last year he was working alongside a firm of brokers which, he said, regularly tried to get people to invest in ‘all manner of dodgy schemes’.

He said select traders were given the ‘Barclays leads’ which they exploited to the full. ‘They would start by saying that they had a great investment opportunity that would suit someone on a particular income or with a particular amount of money to invest.

‘Of course, they already knew this about the person they were talking to.’

The whistleblower first became aware of the Barclays leads in September when the boss of the brokerage firm asked him to sell them to other traders. ‘The obvious question I asked was, “These are fantastic leads, why are you not using them yourself?”

‘He replied, “We have – sell it as secondary data.” He had got all he could out of them. New, they were worth £50 per file. He asked us to sell for £8.’

The whistleblower showed the leads to a select group of brokers ‘who thought they were amazing’, but eventually decided not to sell.

‘My conscience got the better of me. It was all just so wrong,’ he said. ‘I wasn’t a broker myself at this stage, but I had a business link to the firm.’

Between December 2012 and September 2013 the firm persuaded victims to buy rare earth metals that did not exist, it is claimed. The whistleblower estimates up to 1,000 people could have been ‘scammed’.

When the investors began to suspect they were being fleeced he said the boss chose to ‘shut the trading floor’.

‘His orders were to get rid of the evidence, to show that we were never there. We bleached the desks so his DNA was not in the office. We destroyed his laptop and 15 bags of paperwork. We wiped the computers. During this fiasco he asked me, “Have you got the Barclays leads?” I said, “No, I haven’t, they must have been destroyed”.

‘But I kept them because I thought the whole thing had gone too far. I want to stop it now, to tell people what was happening.’

Barclays said in a statement: ‘We are grateful to The Mail on Sunday for bringing this to our attention and we contacted the Information Commissioner and other regulators on Friday as soon as we were made aware.

‘Our initial investigations suggest this is isolated to customers linked to our Barclays Financial Planning business, which we ceased  in 2011.

‘We will take all necessary steps to contact and advise those customers as soon as possible so that they can also ensure the safety of their personal data.

‘Protecting customers’ data is a top priority and we take this issue extremely seriously. This appears to be criminal action and we will co-operate with the authorities on pursuing the perpetrator.

‘We would like to reassure all of our customers  that we have taken every practical measure to ensure that personal and financial details remain as safe and secure as possible.’

The Mail on Sunday has arranged to pass on the data to the Information Commissioner’s Office. A spokesman said: ‘We’ll be working with The Mail on Sunday this week as well as working with the police.’

It is not the first data loss by a leading bank, but the depth of the data included in this case outstrips anything else uncovered so far. The Information Commissioner’s Office can impose fines of up to £500,000 on organisations that fail to protect private data.

But the City watchdog the Financial Conduct Authority can levy unlimited fines.

In 2009 HSBC was fined £3million after parts of its business were found to have been ‘careless’ in handing customers’ data when discs were lost in the post; and in 2010 the UK arm of Zurich Insurance was fined £2.275 million after it lost 46,000 customers’ data.

In neither case was the data thought to have fallen into the wrong hands.

But the Barclays data appears to have been actively stolen and ended up in the hands of unscrupulous salesmen.

The revelation comes as the bank is bracing itself for a row over bonuses, with as much as £2.4 billion set to be handed out to staff.

I was given the Barclays ‘leads’ after they had been ‘rinsed’ – or used up – and told to sell them to other brokers.

In the end, I didn’t do this because I thought it was wrong – and by that time I’d had enough of the whole business.

There is no question that the Barclays data was used, though. It was pure gold to brokers (who must have made a fortune out of it) because it gave them a psychological edge over potential investors – their victims.

Because of its detail it allowed the brokers to get inside the minds of their targets. They knew exactly how much money these people were prepared to invest and their attitude to risk.

They knew everything about them and tailored their strategy accordingly. I was told only the best brokers were given the Barclays leads – these are the most manipulative people.

There are a lot of good people in the brokerage industry but also a lot of undesirables. I know plenty of drug dealers who got involved because they realised they could make more money in the City than they could on the streets.

The perfect money-making opportunity for many of the brokers came during the recession when people’s savings were hit by low interest rates.

Potential investors became susceptible to the broker’s questionable approaches and promises of sky-high returns.

I worked at a type of brokerage known in the industry as a ‘spank shop’, operating from rented offices outside London or even in the City.

The brokers ‘spank’ or punish people over the phone by advising them to invest in certain commodities which make lots of money for the broker, but not the investor.

The broker sells the commodity for such a massive mark up that it eliminates any opportunity the investor has to make money. The industry gets young people, brainwashes them, shows them a high end lifestyle and trains them to pull private investors.

Brokerages want to hire people who are money-oriented, articulate and who speak the Queen’s English.

Their ideal is the young, hungry white guy. They want the most aggressive person, very manipulative and bullish, almost like a New York broker in the 1980s.

In the first interview they would ask: ‘Do you **** whores and sniff coke? Do not come and work here if you don’t.’

They might even ask the interviewee to sing a song. They want to see if they can bend them over a barrel and get them to do what they want.

Out of 10,000 brokers, 9,000 will be earning below the minimum wage. The majority will never succeed. The successful ones do not have a moral compass.

Most people drop out after a couple of years because they burn out but I know old school brokers who’ve done it since the 1980s.

We got trained by Jordan Belfort, the real-life Wolf of Wall Street. It cost £38,000 for an hour’s conference call with him from New York. Three different firms took part and there were 40 brokers in the room, sitting around a phone.

He’s big on ‘rapport building’. He shows how to apply pressure in the right places – how to manipulate people in a controlled way. In all cases, brokers try to find the person’s motive for investing.

When trust is established  it’s very easy to make the ale or ‘load’ a client with a commodity. Loaders are a breed of broker and some can earn 40 per cent a deal on just the commission.

At one time carbon credits were the top commodities sold. Investors paid £6.50 for the credits – in fact worth nothing.

Now the spank shops are selling diamonds and rare earth metals. Brokers can quickly get greedy. A quantity of diamonds sold to a broker for £1,000 are sold on to the investor (or victim) for £40,000.

A lot of contracts between broker and investor include ‘exit confirmation’ – the date when the return on investment is expected. But in many cases those clauses are a lie.

A month or two before the exit strategy is due, the firm winds up and disappears.

The owners – criminals in sharp suits – will set up shop, trade for a bit, then the company will close, only for the brokers to open another one.

The next day they ring the same clients, but with different voices on the end of the phone. You might use a different name – nobody uses their real name.

Many on the Barclays list were born in the 1930s. Old people are perfect targets because they are more trusting and they haven’t got long left. You hope they die before your exit strategy comes up.

The spank shop industry is terrible and needs to be stamped out.

Source*

Related Topics:
Danske Bank Denying Access to Personal Accounts*

More Banks Preventing Cash Withdrawals*

Cashless Society: Use Credit Cards at Your Peril*

Take Back Your Power’

Take Back Your Power’

From Alexandra Bruce

‘Take Back Your Power’ has been named winner of the AwareGuide Transformational Film of the Year.

The crowdfunded film exposes in-home surveillance issues, customer billing corruption, potential health risks and other problems associated with utilities’ plans for upgrading to a centralized “smart” energy grid.

It finished atop the list of 33 worldwide finalists along with ‘The Ghosts In Our Machine’, co-winner of the award.
“This is a victory for a growing majority who want to restore sanity to the roles played by technology and government,’ said Josh del Sol, producer and director of Take Back Your Power.

“The issues unveiled in our film leave viewers rocked and inspired to see solutions. Winning this award means people are ready for a positive transformation.”

Take Back Your Power features interview footage from whistleblower Edward Snowden, former CIA Director James Woolsey, former British Columbia premier Bill Vander Zalm, public health investigator Blake Levitt, rights advocate lawyer James Turner, and other experts, doctors and environmentalists.


“The NSA spying progams are half of the story – we’re exposing the other half, and what we can do about it,” stated del Sol. “We have an amazing community of grassroots support worldwide, and have held more than 90 community screenings. Our aim is to work with grassroots campaigners in every city, and to have every public official see Take Back Your Power.”

 

Related Topics:

Conned into Smart Meters, Conned out of Your Health

750,000 U.S. Households have gone off-the-Grid

A Successful Strike Against RFID’s – Personalized Electronic Tracking System

The Healing Frequency, and the Frequency of Disharmony

New deal to connect Israel to European electric grid

Walking into a Wi-Fi Field 2*

How the NSA Accesses Your Smartphone *

Cancer the Leading Cause of Child Deaths in U.S.*

Implant RFID Chip Technology in Students without Parental Consent*

Son Died from Wi-Fi Induced Brain Cancer Parents Say*

Warning from UK medical Doctors on Health and Safety of Wi-Fi and Mobile Phones

9th Grade Cress Experiment Proves WiFi Kills*

France is Broke, but Still Reaping from the Colonial Tax!*

France is Broke, but Still Reaping from the Colonial Tax!*

It is quite amazing that after killing, torturing and stealing the natural resources of other peoples how colonial master past and present are quite basically broke. Obviously, all the men and women at the top of the cabal pyramid took most of the benefits leaving their citizens under the illusion that they were/have been living in a free world. Then these same people dare to turn around and fleece their citizens for everything they’ve got. Clearly, it is time to stop paying the tax, because only those at the top are benefiting.

When Sékou Touré of Guinea decided in 1958 to get out of French colonial empire, and opted for the country independence, the French colonial elite in Paris got so furious, and in a historic act of fury the French administration in Guinea destroyed everything in the country which represented what they called the benefits from French colonization.

Three thousand French left the country, taking all their property and destroying anything that which could not be moved: schools, nurseries, public administration buildings were crumbled; cars, books, medicine, research institute instruments, tractors were crushed and sabotaged; horses, cows in the farms were killed, and food in warehouses were burned or poisoned.

The purpose of this outrageous act was to send a clear message to all other colonies that the consequences for rejecting France would be very high.

Slowly fear spread through the African elite, and none after the Guinea events ever found the courage to follow the example of Sékou Touré, whose slogan was

“We prefer freedom in poverty to opulence in slavery.”

Sylvanus Olympio, the first president of the Republic of Togo, a tiny country in west Africa, found a middle ground solution with the French. He didn’t want his country to continue to be a French dominion, therefore he refused to sign the colonisation continuation pact De Gaule proposed, but agree to pay an annual debt to France for the so called benefits Togo got from French colonization. It was the only conditions for the French not to destroy the country before leaving. However, the amount estimated by France was so big that the reimbursement of the so called “colonial debt” was close to 40% of the country budget in 1963.

The financial situation of the newly independent Togo was very unstable, so in order to get out the situation, Olympio decided to get out the French colonial money FCFA (the franc for French African colonies), and issue the country own currency.

On January 13, 1963, three days after he started printing his country own currency, a squad of illiterate soldiers backed by France killed the first elected president of newly independent Africa. Olympio was killed by an ex French Foreign Legionnaire army sergeant called Etienne Gnassingbe who supposedly received a bounty of $612 from the local French embassy for the hit man job.

Olympio’s dream was to build an independent and self-sufficient and self-reliant country. But the French didn’t like the idea.

On June 30, 1962, Modiba Keita , the first president of the Republic of Mali, decided to withdraw from the  French colonial currency FCFA which was imposed on 12 newly independent African countries. For the Malian president, who was leaning more to a socialist economy, it was clear that colonisation continuation pact with France was a trap, a burden for the country development.

On November 19, 1968, like, Olympio, Keita will be the victim of a coup carried out by another ex French Foreign legionnaire, the Lieutenant Moussa Traoré.

In fact during that turbulent period of African fighting to liberate themselves from European colonization, France would repeatedly use many ex Foreign legionnaires to carry out coups against elected presidents:

On January 1st, 1966, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, an ex french foreign legionnaire, carried a coup against David Dacko, the first President of the Central African Republic.

On January 3, 1966, Maurice Yaméogo, the first President of the Republic of Upper Volta, now called Burkina Faso, was victim of a coup carried by Aboubacar Sangoulé Lamizana, an ex French legionnaire who fought with french troops in Indonesia and Algeria against these countries independence.

On 26 October 1972, Mathieu Kérékou who was a security guard to President Hubert Maga, the first President of the Republic of Benin, carried a coup against the president, after he attended French military schools from 1968 to 1970.

In fact, during the last 50 years, a total of 67 coups happened in 26 countries in Africa, 16 of those countries are french ex-colonies, which means 61% of the coups happened in Francophone Africa.

Number of Coups in Africa by country

Ex French   colonies 

Other African   countries

Country 

Number of coup

Country

number of coup

Togo

1

Egypte

1

Tunisia

1

Libye

1

Cote d’Ivoire

1

Equatorial Guinea

1

Madagascar

1

Guinea Bissau

2

Rwanda

1

Liberia

2

Algeria

2

Nigeria

3

Congo – RDC

2

Ethiopia

3

Mali

2

Ouganda

4

Guinea Conakry

2

Soudan

5

SUB-TOTAL 1

13

Congo

3

Tchad

3

Burundi

4

Central Africa

4

Niger

4

Mauritania

4

Burkina Faso

5

Comores

5

SUB-TOTAL 2

32

TOTAL (1 + 2)

45

TOTAL

22

As these numbers demonstrate, France is quite desperate but active to keep a strong hold on his colonies what ever the cost, no matter what.

In March 2008, former French President Jacques Chirac said:

“Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [world] power”

Chirac’s predecessor François Mitterand already prophesied in 1957 that:

 ”Without Africa, France will have no history in the 21st century”

At this very moment I’m writing this article, 14 african countries are obliged by France, trough a colonial pact, to put 85% of their foreign reserve into France central bank under French minister of Finance control. Until now, 2014, Togo and about 13 other african countries still have to pay colonial debt to France. African leaders who refuse are killed or victim of coup. Those who obey are supported and rewarded by France with lavish lifestyle while their people endure extreme poverty, and desperation.

It’s such an evil system even denounced by the European Union, but France is not ready to move from that colonial system which puts about 500 billions dollars from Africa to its treasury year in year out.

We often accuse African leaders of corruption and serving western nations interests instead, but there is a clear explanation for that behavior. They behave so because they are afraid the be killed or victim of a coup. They want a powerful nation to back them in case of aggression or trouble. But, contrary to a friendly nation protection, the western protection is often offered in exchange of these leaders renouncing to serve their own people or nations’ interests.

African leaders would work in the interest of their people if they were not constantly stalked and bullied by colonial countries.

In 1958, scared about the consequence of choosing independence from France, Leopold Sédar Senghor declared: “The choice of the Senegalese people is independence; they want it to take place only in friendship with France, not in dispute.”

From then on France accepted only an “independence on paper” for his colonies, but signed binding “Cooperation Accords”, detailing the nature of their relations with France, in particular ties to France colonial currency (the Franc), France educational system, military and commercial preferences.

Below are the 11 main components of the Colonisation continuation pact since 1950s:

#1.  Colonial Debt for the benefits of France colonization

The newly “independent” countries  should pay for the infrastructure built by France in the country during colonization.

I still have to find out the complete details about the amounts, the evaluation of the colonial benefits and the terms of payment imposed on the african countries, but we are working on that (help us with info).

#2. Automatic confiscation of national reserves

The African countries should deposit their national monetary reserves into France Central bank.

France has been holding the national reserves of fourteen african countries since 1961: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.

“The monetary policy governing such a diverse aggregation of countries is uncomplicated because it is, in fact, operated by the French Treasury, without reference to the central fiscal authorities of any of the WAEMU or the CEMAC. Under the terms of the agreement which set up these banks and the CFA the Central Bank of each African country is obliged to keep at least 65% of its foreign exchange reserves in an “operations account” held at the French Treasury, as well as another 20% to cover financial liabilities.

The CFA central banks also impose a cap on credit extended to each member country equivalent to 20% of that country’s public revenue in the preceding year. Even though the BEAC and the BCEAO have an overdraft facility with the French Treasury, the drawdowns on those overdraft facilities are subject to the consent of the French Treasury. The final say is that of the French Treasury which has invested the foreign reserves of the African countries in its own name on the Paris Bourse.

In short, more than 80% of the foreign reserves of these African countries are deposited in the “operations accounts” controlled by the French Treasury. The two CFA banks are African in name, but have no monetary policies of their own. The countries themselves do not know, nor are they told, how much of the pool of foreign reserves held by the French Treasury belongs to them as a group or individually.

The earnings of the investment of these funds in the French Treasury pool are supposed to be added to the pool but no accounting is given to either the banks or the countries of the details of any such changes. The limited group of high officials in the French Treasury who have knowledge of the amounts in the “operations accounts”, where these funds are invested; whether there is a profit on these investments; are prohibited from disclosing any of this information to the CFA banks or the central banks of the African states .” Wrote Dr. Gary K. Busch

It’s now estimated that France is holding close to 500 billions African countries money in its treasury, and would do anything to fight anyone who want to shed a light on this dark side of the old empire.

The African countries don’t have access to that money.

France allows them to access only 15% of the money in any given year. If they need more than that, they have to borrow the extra money from their own 65% from the French Treasury at commercial rates.

To make things more tragic, France impose a cap on the amount of money the countries could borrow from the reserve. The cap is fixed at 20% of their public revenue in the preceding year. If the countries need to borrow more than 20% of their own money, France has a veto.

Former French President Jacques Chirac recently spoke about the African nations money in France banks. Here is a video of  him speaking about the french exploitation scheme. He is speaking in French, but here is a short excerpt transcript: “We have to be honest, and acknowledge that a big part of the money in our banks come precisely from the exploitation of the African continent.”

#3.  Right of first refusal on any raw or natural resource discovered in the country

France has the first right to buy any natural resources found in the land of its ex-colonies. It’s only after France would say, “I’m not interested”, that the African countries are allowed to seek other partners.

#4. Priority to French interests and companies in public procurement and public biding

In the award of government contracts, French companies must be considered first, and only after that these countries  could look elsewhere. It doesn’t matter if the african countries can obtain better value for money elsewhere.

As consequence, in many of the french ex-colonies, all the majors economical assets of the countries are in the hand of french expatriates. In Côte d’Ivoire, for example, french companies own and control all the major utilities – water, electricity, telephone, transport, ports and major banks. The same in commerce, construction, and agriculture.

In the end, as I’ve written in a previous article, Africans now Live On A Continent Owned by Europeans!

#5. Exclusive right to supply military equipment and Train the country military officers

Through a sophisticated scheme of scholarships, grants, and “Defense Agreements” attached to the Colonial Pact, the africans should send their senior military officers for training in France or French ran-training facilities.

The situation on the continent now is that France has trained hundreds, even thousands of traitors and nourish them. They are dormant when they are not needed, and activated when needed for a coup or any other purpose!

#6. Right for France to pre-deploy troops and  intervene military in the country to defend its interests

Under something called “Defence Agreements” attached to the Colonial Pact, France had the legal right to intervene militarily in the African countries, and also to station troops permanently in bases and military facilities in those countries, run entirely by the French.

French military bases in Africa

When President Laurent Gbagbo of Côte d’Ivoire tried to end the French exploitation of the country, France organized a coup. During the long process to oust Gbagbo, France tanks, helicopter gunships and Special Forces intervened directly in the conflit, fired on civilians and killed many.

To add insult to injury, France estimated that the French business community had lost several millions of dollars when in the rush to leave Abidjan in 2006 the French Army massacred 65 unarmed civilians and wounded 1,200 others.

After France succeeded the coup, and transferred power to Alassane Outtara, France requested Ouattara government to pay compensation to French business community for the losses during the civil war.

Indeed the Ouattara government paid them twice what they said they had lost in leaving.

#7. Obligation to make French the official language of the country and the language for education

Oui, Monsieur. Vous devez parlez français, la langue de Molière!

A French language and culture dissemination organization has been created called “Francophonie” with several satellites and affiliates organizations supervised by the French Minister of Foreign Affairs.

As demonstrated in this article, if French is the only language you speak, you’d have access to less than 4% of humanity knowledge and ideas. That’s very limiting.

#8. Obligation to use France colonial money FCFA

That’s the real milk cow for France, but it’s such an evil system even denounced by the European Union, but France is not ready to move from that colonial system which puts about 500 billions dollars from Africa to its treasury.

During the introduction of Euro currency in Europe, other european countries discovered the french exploitation  scheme. Many, specially the nordic countries, were appalled and suggested France get rid of the system, but unsuccessfully.

#9.  Obligation to send France annual balance and reserve report.

Without the report, no money.

Anyway the secretary of the Central banks of the ex-colonies, and the secretary of the bi-annual meeting of the Ministers of Finance of the ex-colonies is carried out by France Central bank / Treasury.

#10. Renonciation to enter into military alliance with any other country unless authorized by France

African countries in general are the ones with will less regional military alliances. Most of the countries have only military alliances with their ex-colonisers! (funny, but you can’t do better!).

In the case France ex-colonies, France forbid them to seek other military alliance except the one it offered them.

#11. Obligation to ally with France in situation of war or global crisis

Over one million africans soldiers fought for the defeat of nazism and fascism during the second world war.

Their contribution is often ignored or minimized, but when you think that it took only 6 weeks for Germany to defeat France in 1940, France knows that Africans could be useful for fighting for la “Grandeur de la France” in the future.

There is something almost psychopathic in the relation of France with Africa.

First,  France is severely addicted to looting and exploitation of Africa  since the time of slavery. Then there is this complete lack of creativity and imagination of French elite to think beyond the past and tradition.

Finally, France has 2 institutions which are completely frozen into the past, inhabited by paranoid and psychopath “haut fonctionnaires” who spread fear of apocalypse if France would change, and whose ideological reference still comes from the 19th century romanticism: they are the Minister of Finance and Budget of France and the Minister of Foreign affairs of France.

These 2 institutions are not only a threat to Africa, but to the French themselves.

It’s up to us as African to free ourselves, without asking for permission, because I still can’t understand for example how 450 french soldiers in Côte d’Ivoire could control a population of 20 millions people!? 

People first reaction when they learn about the french colonial tax is often a question: “Until when?”

For historical comparison, France made Haiti to pay the modern equivalent of $21 billion from 1804 till 1947 (almost one century and half) for the losses caused to french slave traders by the abolition of slavery and the liberation of the Haitian slaves.

African countries are paying the colonial tax only for the last 50 years, so I think one century of payment might be left!

Source*

Related Topics:

Controlling Haiti

From Liberation to Re-enslavement

Controling Haiti’s Gold

Colonial France out for Niger’s Uranium*

French Grab for Mali’s Gold*

The Rise of the French Right and the CFA Franc

The Imperial Vultures to Gather for the U.S.-Africa Summit*