Archive | July 21, 2014

Tanzania Stands to Lose US$1 billion Annually in a Exxon Mobil-Norwegian Gas Deal*

Tanzania Stands to Lose US$1 billion Annually in a Exxon Mobil-Norwegian Gas Deal*

Exxon-Mobil has partnered with Norways Statoil in the oil fields of Tanzania. Rothschild is the advisory bank for Statoil. Statoil has a 65% working interest, while Tanzania Petroleum along with Exxon-Mobil has a 35% working interest, so who benefits?

Statoil (U.K.) Ltd is one of the companies that provide financial support to the Crisis Group along with Exxon-Mobil. The International Crisis Group (ICG) in real terms creates regional crises as exampled by Thailand and Egypt. Mohamed El-Baradei one of the key figures in Egypt’s counter-revolution is an ICG member.

By Pernille Baerendtsen

No one knows for sure how much gas there is in Tanzania, though estimates put the amount at around 51 trillion cubic feet (TCF). But expectations surrounding gas exploration in Tanzania are soaringly high.

Across Tanzania’s commercial capital, Dar es Salaam, both traffic and new construction are burgeoning. The African Development Bank’s (AfDB) designation of Dar es Salaam as the fastest growing city in East Africa is almost literally palpable. The AfDB report, “Tracking Africa’s Progress”, predicts that the city’s population will increase from 4 million to 6.2 million over the next 10 years. Predictions regarding the country’s economic growth are based on future income from natural resources, like gas from the region of Mtwara. AfDB’s forecast, for instance, makes reference to the potential jobs this activity will create.

Protests in January and May 2013, however, by residents in the port city of Mtwara, signal a lack of confidence that the future envisioned by the AfDB will also materialise for remote rural areas of Tanzania such as Mtwara Region. The catalyst for the protests was the announcement of a decision by the government to construct a gas pipeline from Mtwara to Dar es Salaam instead of a gas processing plant in Mtwara. The latter would have fed into an industrialisation strategy that would boost local development.

An incident in early July 2014 involving a production sharing agreement (PSA) between the Tanzanian Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) and the Norwegian multinational Statoil, along with Exxon Mobil, highlights how fraught the question of revenues from Tanzania’s gasfields—and who will benefit from them—has become. Though not directly linked to the protests in Mtwara, the TPDC-Statoil affair underlines a growing awareness among Tanzanians of the issues surrounding oil and gas, and an increasing dissatisfaction with the way the government handles natural resources contracts and communicates this information to citizens.

At the center of the matter is an addendum to Statoil’s original contract with the Tanzanian government for gas extraction in Mtwara Region that was leaked, then brought to the attention of the Tanzanian press in early July 2014. According to media reports, under the terms of the agreement as outlined in the leaked document, the government stands to lose US$1 billion annually.

On social media Tanzanians wondered how the two multinationals had managed to strike such a good deal. A cartoon by Masoud Kipanya published in the Tanzanian daily Mwananchi depicts a white man with a tank labelled “GESI” (Swahili for “gas”) on his back, extracting gas from the ground while handing out pennies to a Tanzanian. Another Kipanya cartoon shows a mouse saying in Swahili: “I wish that we would let our gas remain underground till our country reaches adolescence.”

Statoil’s gas extraction project in Tanzania is one of the largest investments ever in Sub-Saharan Africa. Writing on Africa Arguments, the analyst and blogger Ben Taylor claimed that the potential revenue from natural gas is on a scale that could release Tanzania from its heavy dependence on development aid.

“Another indication of the scale involved here,” wrote Taylor, “is that since the Norwegian government is Statoil’s majority shareholder, the extra revenue to the Norwegian government from this deal could be worth more than double the total of all Norwegian aid to Tanzania since independence.”

Zitto Kabwe, a member of parliament and Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee, highlighted some of the leaked document’s key points in a Q&A on his blog, and critiqued the fact that the PSA was not made publicly available. In a July 6 article in the Daily News the TPDC responded to Kabwe, asserting that claims that the country risked losing US$1 billion per year were unfounded. Kabwe and others countered the TPDC’s comments on Twitter, and Kabwe called on the TPDC to clarify the terms of the deal.

According to a July 19 article in The Citizen, the TPCD confirmed its position in a press conference on July 16:

“Outgoing TPDC managing director Yona Killagane strongly refuted the claims that the country would incur a loss of $1 billion annually if the pact is fully implemented as agreed. Instead, he insisted that the government was likely to earn more money and that it stood a higher chance to benefit from the contract.”

Tanzanians are not particularly pampered with regard to transparency around natural resources contracts, but this latest affair gives rise to even further mistrust. Nor does it help when the likes of Patrick Rutabanzibwa, chairman of PanAfrican Energy, the company that runs the Songo Songo Gas and gas-fueled power plant in Ubungo in Dar es Salaam (also the former Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Energy and Minerals), minimise the matter.

“We are failing to enter into resource contracts as it was in mining and currently in oil and gas because our capacity is very low,” said Rutabanzibwa. “But if Tanzanians will be empowered then, contracts will be balanced. . . . We should let bygones be bygones and start by legally making investment contracts in the natural gas sector public; I am sure there will come a day where all investment contracts are public.”

For stakeholders with particular interests in business and investments in Tanzania, criticism makes a challenging investment area like gas even more difficult, and some will even argue that it will result in less money going to neglected areas. Others might say that regardless of Tanzania’s share of the revenue, there will still be benefits in the form of jobs and local growth in Mtwara.

Analyst Ben Taylor is less optimistic.

“One of the big political risks with oil and gas,” wrote Taylor, “is that it can be seen by politicians and senior officials as ‘easy’ money that doesn’t come with the kind of scrutiny that taxpayers demand when they pay their taxes and donors demand when they provide aid.

“Unless somebody – the media, politicians, civil society – steps up to fill the gap, decision makers in government will be left free to make whatever decisions they choose, unencumbered by any need to protect the public interest. The Statoil PSA may well have cost Tanzania several billion dollars – yet it appears no-one is trying to hold those responsible to account.”


Nordic Region

Statoil: High-Impact Gas Discovery Offshore Tanzania

Related Topics:

TPP, TPPA Goes EPA in the Recolonization of Africa*

Oil vs. Communities: Has the Chicken Come Home to Roost for ExxonMobil!

Oil Exploration in Congo’s Virunga Park Canceled*

Shell, Chevron and Glencore on Trial for Global Human Rights Abuses*

Namibia Plans to Sell its own Diamonds with De Beers aka Rothschild*

Rothschild’s Rio Tinto Signs $20bn African Iron Ore Deal*

Recolonizing Africa: Consolidating African Oil Assets*

Behind the False Flag: Israel’s After Gaza’s Natural Gas*

The Grand Scam: El-Baradei and his Liberal Elites*

Rothschild, Morgan and Stanley in Bitter Takeover Battle for Giant US Copper Mine*

It’s a Myth that We Only Use 10% of Our Brains*

It’s a Myth that We Only Use 10% of Our Brains*

By Jordan Gaines Lewis

It’s a common conversation starter to assert that we only use 10% of our brains. In Lucy, the soon-to-be-released thriller about a woman forced to work as a drug mule for the Taiwanese mob, Professor Norman lectures,

left Brain right Brain

“It is estimated most human beings only use 10% of their brain’s capacity. Imagine if we could access 100%. Interesting things begin to happen.”

Now, I know Morgan Freeman is well versed in playing the wise sage, and I know that I haven’t earned my PhD yet – but professor, I beg to differ. You see, we all access 100% of our brains every day. And we don’t have to be telekinetic or memorise an entire deck of cards to do it.

In the film, the drugs implanted into Lucy (played by Scarlett Johansson) leak into her system, allowing her to “access 100%” of her brain. Among other things, Lucy can move objects with her mind, choose not to feel pain, and memorise copious amounts of information. In a way, the idea that we only use 10% of our brains is rather inspiring. It may motivate us to try harder or tap into some mysterious, intact reservoir of creativity and potential. There are even products that promise to unlock that other 90%.

As ludicrous as the claim is, however, two-thirds of the public and, get this, half of science teachers reportedly still believe the myth to be true. The notion is so widespread that when University College London neuroscientist Sophie Scott attended a first aid course, her instructor assured the class that head injuries weren’t dangerous because “90% of the brain [doesn’t] do anything”.

How did this misconception come about?

We may be able to track its earliest roots back to psychologist William James, who wrote in his 1907 text The Energies of Men,

“we are making use of only a small part of our possible mental and physical resources.”

I tend to agree with this sentiment when I spend my evenings on the couch watching reality television but, of course, James didn’t intend to lend credence to this 10% myth.

But someone else did. Lowell Thomas, in his foreword to Dale Carnegie’s 1936 book How to Win Friends and Influence People, reinterpreted the statement and, it seems, sprinkled in a few of his own ideas.

“Professor William James of Harvard,” wrote Thomas, “used to say that the average person develops only 10% of his latent mental ability.”

Here’s the thing: the brain has rapidly tripled its original size across 2 million years of human evolution. Despite only accounting for 2% of our body weight, the brain gobbles up a whopping 20% of our daily energy intake. Our brains are also remarkably efficient, having evolved gyri (ridges) which have dramatically increased our cortical surface-area-to-total volume ratio relative to other species. The “we only use 10% of our brains” claim would mean that we’re effectively evolving in the opposite direction – and that we’re doing this very quickly.

Another obvious way we know that we’re using more than 10% of our brain at any one time is through approaches like functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography. PET and fMRI are imaging techniques that reveal areas of relatively high brain activity in real time. Imaging studies tell us that not only are many brain areas recruited when performing even the simplest of tasks, like watching a movie, but that the activity between these areas is extremely dynamic.

Plus, the “use it or lose it” adage seems to hold particularly true in brain health.

A 2012 study by biologist Dorothy Schafer and colleagues at Harvard found that neural immune cells called microglia can remove idle, but otherwise healthy, synapses (connections) between brain cells. If we were only regularly using only 10% of our brains at any given time, we might all be prone to cerebral atrophy, resembling patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

But the “10% myth” may have since been perpetuated by one 10% figure that is true. Despite the brain having nearly 100 billion neurons, this cell type is vastly outnumbered by another: glial cells. Glial (“glue”) cells are responsible for maintaining homeostasis (keeping everything ticking well), providing structural support, insulating neurons with an insulating substance called myelin, and removing pathogens and debris. The actual ratio of glial cells to neurons is disputed, although many texts claim that it may be roughly 10:1. In other words, neurons are only 10% of our entire brain.

Think about yourself right now.

Are you engaging your muscles to sit yourself upright?

Using your hand to scroll your computer mouse (or thumb on your mobile device)?

Perhaps you’re eating something?

Listening to music?


Then rest assured, you’re using more than 10% of your brain right now.

You may have played God in a movie, Morgan Freeman, but clearly you need a primer on how your most incredible creation – the brain – functions.


Related Topics:

The Brain Connection: Prayer and Meditation

Love Even Affects the Size of a Child’s Brain*

‘Digital Dementia’ Puts Half the Brain to Sleep … permanently!*

Son Died from Wi-Fi Induced Brain Cancer Parents Say*

Nature Helps Our Brain Connect!

Drugs That Stop Your Brain from Working…

Violent Videos Change Brain Structure

Traveling Helps the Brain Connect!

The Man Who Freed his Brain!

Test the Poor until they are Brain Dead, and Educate the Rich!

Obama’s Manipulating the Brain Project

Modern Human Brain Smaller than the Ancients!

The Brain Says Men and Women are Different When It Comes to Stress

Men’s Brains vs. Women’s Brains

Aroused from its Economic Depression the UN Finally Condemns One Massacre*

Aroused from its Economic Depression the UN Finally Condemns One Massacre*

The UN Security Council has expressed concern over the two-week violence in Gaza that has claimed more than 450 lives – at least 70 of them civilians.

The shelling aftermath in Shejaia

11,000Take to the Streets of Vienna in Protest of Gaza*

Almost 11,000 demonstrators have attended a pro-Palestinian protest in the Austrian capital Sunday between the Hofburg Palace and the Rathaus town hall, in anger at Israel’s military campaign which has killed more than 400 people already.

‘Free, free, free Palestine’ and ‘Let Gaza Live’, the protesters changed while wielding a variety of posters and flags.

“We are not against the Jewish people. the Jewish people should feel free and live free like everybody. We are against the Zionists, actually, who are supported from this big, big mafia and lobby around the world,” Abderrahmen Laarouchi told Ruplty.

Related Topics:

While U.N. Remains Silent to the Palestinian Holocaust 100,000 Brits march in Support of Palestine*

A Zionist General’s Son Speaks Out!*

Deir Yassin, the Beginning of the Palestinian Holocaust. 1948*

Intelligence Agents amidst UAE ‘Aid Convoy’ to Gaza*

Turkish Medical Aid Reaches Gaza*

Report from Gaza and Israel… Evacuate to Where!*

Egyptian Ceasefire Initiative a U.S.- Blair Plot!*

Deir Yassin, the Beginning of the Palestinian Holocaust. 1948*

Deir Yassin, the Palestinian Holocaust. 1948*

Recently, the Zionist Supremacist state of Israel celebrated its 66th anniversary. But, hidden amongst the celebrations, is a dark secret that the Jewish Supremacist—controlled media always cover up—the fact that the Jewish state was founded on the wholesale murder and expulsion of the Palestinian people.

Paul Eisen tells the story of just one of these events, and of how the dead bodies of the murdered Palestinians are buried in a hidden mass grave literally within eyeshot of Israel’s “Holocaust Museum,” Yad Vahsem:

By Paul Eisen

…The massacre at Deir Yassin marked the beginning of the depopulation of more than 450 Arab villages and the exile of more than 750,000 Palestinians.

DEIR YASSIN was the Palestinian village at which, on April 9th 1948, a massacre took place.

Deir Yassin was not the only massacre to take place — on either side — nor was it by any means the worst, but because more than any other single event, the massacre at Deir Yassin signaled the flight of the Palestinian people which led to their eventual dispossession and exile, Deir Yassin has come to occupy a special place in the Palestinian collective memory.

So what happened at Deir Yassin?

The peaceful village of Deir Yassin circa 1930.

Early in the morning of Friday April 9th the peaceful village of Deir Yassin was attacked by a combined force of the dissident Zionist gangs the Irgun and the Stern Gang. Why do I say ‘peaceful’? The villagers of Deir Yassin had good relations with the neighbouring Jewish settlement of Givat Shaul and had recently concluded a non—aggression pact with the settlement. It is also thought that the villagers had a few days before they asked an itinerant band of Palestinian fighters to leave the village so as not to attract hostility from Zionist forces.

The attack on Deir Yassin was proposed and planned by the Irgun and Stern Gang and was sanctioned by the Hagana.

The villagers of Deir Yassin had the grave misfortune to be on land earmarked by the official Zionist militia, the Hagana, for a military airfield — and they had the even greater misfortune to become the object of attention of two groups who had something to prove, because the men and women of the Irgun and the Stern Gang were no fighters. Throwing bombs into crowded Arab markets was easy enough and hanging unarmed British soldiers presented no problem but when it came to open combat, they really weren’t up to much.

The Irgun and Stern Gangs

Things did not go well. The village put up a stiff resistance and the attackers took significant casualties when, by mid—morning the village was still not subdued. But a band of Palmach (the elite troops of the Hagana) happened to be passing and came to the aid of the assailants. With the aid of a mortar, these crack troops soon took the village and then withdrew.

It was then that the massacre took place. By the end of that day between 100 and 120 villagers – mainly elderly men, women and children – lay dead.

This was not the 250 fatalities published a few days later in the New York Times. That figure, we believe, comes from the leaders of the perpetrators who wished to gain the maximum shock effect – and it was unfortunately also taken up by the Palestinian leadership who wanted to gain the maximum ‘atrocity’ benefit.

That evening the Irgun and Stern gang ‘fighters’ sat over tea and cookies in Givat Shaul and boasted of their success in the ‘battle’. Of course, they made no mention of the male Palestinians they had loaded onto open trucks and taken on a grotesque ‘victory parade’ through cheering crowds in the Jewish suburbs of Jerusalem and then took to the nearby quarry and shot. Nor did they mention the children of Deir Yassin — dragged dazed and bleeding from under the bodies of their dead relatives and also loaded onto trucks to be dumped in a Jerusalem alley.

And the effect?

The effect was extreme fear and a fear provoked into a panic which, as happens, spread. The Palestinian people, with every good reason, began to flee. A trickle became a stream, a stream a torrent, a torrent became a flood.

The Lydda Death March — the Palestinians’ ‘Trail of Tears.’

But this near—biblical image may only conceal the real truth of hundreds and thousands of individual stories of anguish and agony — Fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, babies in arms – each one an individual story as yet untold.

And anyway ‘fled’ is but a small part of the story.

The Zionist leadership screamed out its condemnations. There was a cacophony of wailing and breast—beating. Oh the grief and the anguish! How could Jews do such a thing? Was this not a terrible stain on the Zionist record? But, as Palestinians have always known, and as the rest of the world is now beginning to know, all the while they screamed out their condemnations, they both used what was happening and encouraged it.

Remember Deir Yassin! We did it once, we’ll do it again!

We now know of the loudspeaker vans touring the surrounding villages with the recorded screams of the dying and, most shamefully of all in this most traditional of societies, the wailing of violated women. We know about the villages surrounded on three sides – one side left open, always to the east, so the inhabitants could flee. And, of course, we know about the massacres.

And the result?

The result was the Palestinian dispossession which we know as the catastrophe and Palestinians know as al—Nakba.

Now the idea that the Palestinians just ran away has, in the main, been dispelled, but we are still left with many stories, obfuscations and downright lies about responsibility for this ethnic cleansing. The critical issue now centres on the question of intentionality.

Political Zionism’s aims were always clear — to establish, in all of Palestine a Jewish state. The objective, and the way to that objective, was always clear. Palestine for Palestinians was to be transformed into Israel for Jews. And for that you needed a Jewish majority. But how? 750,000 people don’t just leave. They have to be forced to leave and that was exactly what happened.

The fact is that the ethnic cleansing of Palestine, like all instances of ethnic cleansing, was intentional, premeditated and planned. That doesn’t mean that it was planned to take place in April/May 1948, what it does mean is that the plans were there, just waiting for the right opportunity – one of Ben Gurion’s ‘revolutionary situations’ — and such an opportunity situation presented itself in 1947/1948 (By the way, another such ‘revolutionary situation’ presented itself in 1967).

But we need not bother looking for direct documentation. Although there is an abundance of evidence for the desires and intentions of the Zionist leadership to cleanse the land of Palestine, no direct order has been found. The Jewish architects of the Nakba left no ‘smoking gun’. There was no written order — because there was no need for a written order. Like most instances of ethnic cleansing, the expulsion of the Palestinians was done on understandings. Every local Hagana commander, and all the men under their command, at every village and every town knew exactly what was required. Sometimes a few shots in the air was all that was required, sometimes you had to line up 20 men and boys, sometimes you needed a full—blown massacre — but the result was always the same

Palestinian society was shattered by the Zionist onslaught and an entire way of life obliterated. At least 750,000 Palestinians were driven from their homes and into exile. In excess of 450 of their towns and villages were destroyed or pillaged and a people who had lived a settled life for generations ended up either in tents in Lebanon, Syria or Jordan, or as a bereft and traumatized Diaspora in every corner of the earth.

Meanwhile at Deir Yassin…

By the end of the year the village had been repopulated with orthodox Jewish immigrants from Rumania and Slovakia. The cemetery had been leveled and the name Deir Yassin was no more.

And now?

Now you won’t find the name Deir Yassin on any map. The central part of the village was until recently a mental hospital. To the east lies the industrial area of Givat Shaul, to the north Har Hamenuchot, a Jewish cemetery and to the west is Har Nof, an orthodox Jewish settlement. But to the south is a valley and on the other side of that valley, on the lands of the Palestinian village of Ein Kerem, lies the Jewish Holocaust memorial at Yad Vashem.

Note the post—massacre touch to this traditional arch.

You can find Deir Yassin but it’s not easy to visit. There are no plaques, no markers. The old cemetery is now full of broken graves strewn with coke cans and condoms. The ruins of the old monastery, the deir, are unmarked and the quarry, where the male villagers were shot, is under a fuel depot. But Deir Yassin is still there and still in sight of Yad Vashem.

Now, you can make what you will of that configuration, that close proximity of Deir Yassin to Yad Yashem, and the discussion will go on, but certain truths emerge:

First, by all accounts, and according to any version of the events, what was done to the Jews of Europe, whatever it was, took place a long distance from Yad Vashem, while what was done to the Palestinian people began right there at the village of Deir Yassin and right there throughout the whole of Palestine.

Second, the perpetrators of any atrocities against Jews had nothing to do with Palestine or Palestinians, while perpetrators of the Palestinian tragedy were and are both Zionists and Jews.

Third, the perpetrators of atrocities against Jews have been roundly condemned over the years and punished for their crimes, and have mostly shown contrition, while the perpetrators of the massacre at Deir Yassin have been honoured for their crimes, continue to take pride in them, and live on in their ideology and in their deeds.

Fourth, what befell the Jews had a beginning, a middle and an end, while the assault on the Palestinians goes on with no end in sight.

So there you have it: On the one hand the widely known symbol of the suffering of the perpetrator and on the other, the virtually unknown symbol of the suffering of the victim. No matter who you are, perpetrator or victim, and no matter what you think, surely the fact that Deir Yassin stands in clear sight of Yad Vashem must be the most breath—taking of ironies.

That most breathtaking of ironies, Deir Yassin from Yad Vashem. The bodies of the male villagers shot in the quarry are buried under the storage units — center/right on the horizon.

So why remember Deir Yassin?

Well, Palestinians don’t need me, DYR or anyone else for that matter to tell them why and how to remember Deir Yassin. But we ask ourselves: What is it that binds us together and to our traditions. And the answer for me is that it is memory. It is memory that binds a people together, to its past and shows it the way forward. To quote from a Deir Yassin Remembered publication from 2001

Memory is as important to nations as it is to people. As families come together to remember birthdays and anniversaries, so nations come together to remember their national events: Bastille Day, American Independence Day, VE Day, each of them commemorations of national struggle. And it is these commemorations – true commemorations, not the cynical exploitations of recent years – that connect a people to its past and point towards its future.

And Palestinians know this. No people have more fiercely guarded their memories. After all, in 1948 the Palestinians were supposed to go the way of the Arawaks. They were supposed to have disappeared. Yet they are still here, still with their memories intact. Like the keys handed down, keys to houses in Haifa, Jaffa and the hundreds of lost villages and towns, like the Palestinian parents and grandparents telling their children and their grandchildren: .Here is where you are from…This is your home…this is who you are.

For surely, this memory of history commits people to their shared cause and renews their determination to achieve their aims. Again, from the same document:

For Palestinians, as for all peoples, commemoration of history binds and strengthens in the realisation of national aims.

And for us all, Deir Yassin not only helps us to remember the past it also may show us a way forward. With its focus firmly on the original crime of 1948, with its clear and unequivocal distinction between perpetrator and victim and with its call for a coming together, but only one based on truth, Deir Yassin offers a foundation for resistance — and perhaps, even in these terrible times — some kind of reconciliation.


Related Topics:

How Fear was Instilled to Make Jews Leave for Israel

Ceasefire Initiative Aims to Dismantle the Palestinian Resistance*

From Silwan to the City of David

Another Bedouin Community Razed to the Ground, Leave Children without Water in High Temperatures*

West Bank: Israeli Military Destroys Bedouin Village

Forced to Build Sandbag Homes in Gaza

Israel floods Gaza villages, displacing a hundred families

Israel’s Beersheba Plan*

Expanding Israel: Destruction of Homes, Schools and Land in Process*

Israel: Operation Brother’s Keeper*

Intelligence Agents amidst UAE ‘Aid Convoy’ to Gaza*

A Zionist General’s Son Speaks Out!*

Tony Blair Visits Caesarea, an Israeli Rothschild Estate*

While U.N. Remains Silent to the Palestinian Holocaust 100,000 Brits march in Support of Palestine*

Israeli Barbarism: 8 Things You Can Stop Buying*

Boycott Successful: Israel’s SodaStream Closes*

Behind the False Flag: Israel’s After Gaza’s Natural Gas*

Ashkenazi Jews are Genetically European

Fasting Where the Sun Doesn’t Set*

Fasting Where the Sun Doesn’t Set*

Muslims all around the world are fasting through the holy month of Ramadhan, a month in the lunar calendar when Muslims stay away from eating and drinking from the onset of dawn till sunset.

It’s midnight

However, in northern parts of Scandinavia where the sun does not set in the summer, Muslims have to resort to an alternative way of fasting. However, the Muslims living in these places have found a way around it.

Breaking fast during daylight hours

Around 700 Muslims in the Arctic city of Sweden’s Kiruna lack a local religious body to dictate the necessary rulings to them, so while some opt to fast according to the times of Islam’s holiest city Mecca, which they consider a default alternative, others tend to fast according to the times in Stockholm, where the sun actually sets, albeit for a few hours before it rises again.

Evening prayers during the day

The opposite scenario is encountered in the winter, where for two week the sun does not rise. Not only does thing affect fasting, but it also affects prayer times, as in Islam the five daily prayer times depend on the positioning of the sun. In this case, Muslims follow the prayer times of the nearest location where the rule is applicable.



Related Topics:

Fasting and Pregnancy

No Increase in Preterm Delivery With Ramadhan Fasting

Regular Fasting Increases a Longer Healthier Life*

Fasting for Three Days can Regenerate Entire Immune System*

Fasting for Change

Ramadhan Reflections: Remembering Those Who Don’t Have the Choice to Fast‏

Many Forms Of Fasting*

The Self Control Gland and Fasting

The Right of Fasting

Uyghur Muslims Punished for Fasting in Holy Month*

Fasting in Shawwal