Archive | March 25, 2017

Now Discovered the Lungs Make Blood*

Now Discovered the Lungs Make Blood*

Researchers have discovered that the lungs play a far more complex role in mammalian bodies than we thought, with new evidence revealing that they don’t just facilitate respiration – they also play a key role in blood production.

In experiments involving mice, the team found that they produce more than 10 million platelets (tiny blood cells) per hour, equating to the majority of platelets in the animals’ circulation. This goes against the decades-long assumption that bone marrow produces all of our blood components.

Researchers from the University of California, San Francisco also discovered a previously unknown pool of blood stem cells that makes this happen inside the lung tissue – cells that were incorrectly assumed to mainly reside in bone marrow.

“This finding definitely suggests a more sophisticated view of the lungs – that they’re not just for respiration, but also a key partner in formation of crucial aspects of the blood,” says one of the researchers, Mark R. Looney.

“What we’ve observed here in mice strongly suggests the lung may play a key role in blood formation in humans as well.”

While the lungs have been known to produce a limited amount of platelets – platelet-forming cells called megakaryocytes have been identified in the lungs before – scientists have long assumed that most of the cells responsible for blood production are kept inside the bone marrow.

Here, a process called haematopoiesis was thought to churn out oxygen-laden red blood cells, infection-fighting  white blood cells, and platelets – blood components required for the clotting that halts bleeding.

But scientists have now watched megakaryocytes functioning from within the lung tissue to produce not a few, but most of the body’s platelets.

So how did we miss such a crucial biological process this whole time?

The discovery was made possible by a new type of technology based on two-photon intravital imaging – a similar technique to one used by a separate team this week to discover a previously unidentified function of the brain’s cerebellum.

The process involves inserting a substance called green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the mouse genome –  a protein that’s naturally produced by bioluminescent animals such as jellyfish, and is harmless to living cells.

The mouse platelets started to emit bright green fluorescence as they circulated around the body in real time, allowing the team to trace their paths like never before.

They noticed a surprisingly large population of platelet-producing megakaryocytes inside the lung tissue, which initially didn’t make much sense, seeing as they’re usually associated with bone marrow.

“When we discovered this massive population of megakaryocytes that appeared to be living in the lung, we realised we had to follow this up,” says one of the team, Emma Lefrançais.

They found that this huge supply of megakaryocytes is actually producing more than 10 million platelets per hour in the lungs of mice, which means at least half of the body’s total platelet production is occurring in the lungs.

Here’s what it looks like:

Further experiments also revealed vast amounts of previously hidden blood stem cells and megakaryocyte progenitor cells (cells that give rise to megakaryocyte and red blood cells) sitting just outside the lung tissue – about 1 million per mouse lung.

When the researchers traced the entire ‘life cycle’ of the megakaryocytes, they found that they likely originate in the bone marrow, then make their way to the lungs, where they start platelet production.

“It’s fascinating that megakaryocytes travel all the way from the bone marrow to the lungs to produce platelets,” says one of the team, Guadalupe Ortiz-Muñoz.

“It’s possible that the lung is an ideal bioreactor for platelet production because of the mechanical force of the blood, or perhaps because of some molecular signalling we don’t yet know about.”

The researchers wanted to investigate if their discovery could have an effect on how we treat disorders such as lung inflammation, bleeding, and transplantation in the future, by transplanting lungs with fluorescent megakaryocyte progenitor cells into mice with low platelet counts.

The transplants produced a massive burst of platelets that quickly restored the depleted platelet counts to normal levels, and the effect lasted for several months.

Another experiment tested what would happen if the bone marrow wasn’t playing a role in blood production.

The team implanted lungs with fluorescent megakaryocyte progenitor cells into mice that had been engineered to have no blood stem cells in their bone marrow.

As Michael Irving reports for New Atlas, they watched as the fluorescent cells from the transplanted lungs made their way to the bone marrow, where they not only helped to produce platelets, but also other key blood components, such as neutrophils, B cells and T cells.

The findings will need to be replicated in humans before we can know for sure that the same process is occurring within our own bodies, but the study makes a strong case for this hidden function in what could be one of our most underrated organs.

It will likely also prompt scientists to investigate further how the bone marrow and lungs work together to produce our blood supply.

“It has been known for decades that the lung can be a site of platelet production, but this study amplifies this idea by demonstrating that the [mouse] lung is a major participant in the process,” Traci Mondoro from the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, who was not involved in the study, said in a press statement.

“Looney and his team have disrupted some traditional ideas about the pulmonary role in platelet-related hematopoiesis, paving the way for further scientific exploration of this integrated biology.”

The research has been published in Nature.

Source*

Related Topics:

Tuberculosis: An old Disease on the Rise Again!

Proper Movements in Muslim Prayer can Reduce Lower Back Pain*

Your Appendix may be more Important than you Think!

99.9999999% of Your Body is Empty Space*

Fifteen Foods to Detox Your Body*

The Human Body Emits, Communicates with, and is Made from Light*

Plant Neurobiology Shows How Trees are Just Like Humans*

Neuroscientists Discover New ‘mini-neural computer’ in the Brain*

Parents Told Five Times to Abort Boy with ‘no brain’ – Now He’s a Thriving 4-year-old*

Similarities between the Brain and the Universe*

Advertisements

H.R. 1313 Bill Would Require Medical Procedures Like Vaccines as Requirement for Employment*

H.R. 1313 Bill Would Require Medical Procedures Like Vaccines as Requirement for Employment*

By National Vaccine Information Center

Please immediately contact your Congressional Representative and 2 U.S. Senators to OPPOSE H.R 1313 Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act

This bill is sponsored by Rep. Foxx, Virginia [R-NC-5]. It is attempting to coerce employees into employer disease prevention wellness programs. Section 3 (a) 2 refers to “workplace wellness programs and programs of health promotion or disease prevention offered by an employer.” The words disease prevention are concerning since not everyone agrees with the use of vaccines to prevent disease.

Section 2 (3) adds to this concern:

(3) in enacting the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111–148), Congress intended that employers would be permitted to implement health promotion and prevention programs that provide incentives, rewards, rebates, surcharges, penalties, or other inducements related to wellness programs, including rewards of up to 50 percent off of insurance premiums for employees participating in programs designed to encourage healthier lifestyle choices;

As well as Section 3 (c);

(c) Rule of construction.—Nothing in subsection (a)(1)(A) shall be construed to prevent an employer that is offering a wellness program to an employee from requiring such employee, within 45 days from the date the employee first has an opportunity to earn a reward, to request a reasonable alternative standard (or waiver of the otherwise applicable standard). Nothing in subsection (a)(1)(A) shall be construed to prevent an employer from imposing a reasonable time period, based upon all the facts and circumstances, during which the employee must complete the reasonable alternative standard. Such a reasonable alternative standard (or waiver of the otherwise applicable standard) is provided for in section 2705(j) (3)(D) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 300 gg–4(j)(3)(D)) (and any regulations promulgated with respect to such section by the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, or the Secretary of the Treasury).

The concern is this bill if passed into law would be applied to penalize employees who do not get regular vaccines imposed by an employee wellness plan. HR 1313 is indeed a threat to anyone employed by a company or large organization that offers a “wellness” program and partners with government and Pharma to “give carrots and apply sticks” to employees who do or do not go along with government endorsed “standard of care,” which includes receipt of federally recommended vaccines, whether the language in this bill says the word “vaccine” or not.

Please go to the “National” Tab on NVIC Advocacy. Your Congressional Representative and Two U.S. Senators will be listed on the right hand side of your personalized page. Click on their names for direct links to their contact information so you can voice your opposition to this bill.

Sincerely,

NVIC Advocacy Team

Source*

Related Topics:

DTP Vaccine Associated With 212% Increased Infant Mortality Risk*

Lab Report Analysis Found Round Up in MMR Vaccine*

Missouri to Ban Mercury and Foreign DNA in Vaccines*

The World Protests on Behalf of Vaccine-Injured Children*

Pennsylvania Bill SB 217 Takes Away Parents’ Right to Object to Child Vaccinations*

30 States Move to Enact Vaccine Bills Including Tracking and Mandatory Vaccines*

Venezuela Maintains High Human Development Despite U.S. Engineered Economic Crisis*

Venezuela Maintains High Human Development Despite U.S. Engineered Economic Crisis*

Children studying in a state school in Caracas, Venezuela. May 23, 2014

Despite the ongoing economic crisis, Venezuela maintained a higher human development ranking than Brazil, Peru, and Colombia.

In spite of an ongoing economic crisis — created by a slump in global oil prices — Venezuela has maintained a high level of human development, according to the U.N., better even than many of its regional neighbours.

The U.N. Development Program released its 2016 Human Development report this week, ranking Venezuela 71st out of the 188 countries examined.

The Human Development Index is a scientific indicator with takes into account life expectancy, literacy and the general quality of life in each country.

Despite an ongoing food and medicine shortage — largely due to illegal hoarding by corporations owned by the right-wing opposition — Venezuela maintained a higher ranking than Brazil, Peru, and Colombia.

In the report, each of the 188 countries is given a measurement between zero and one. The closer to one, the higher the level of human development.

Venezuela was measured at 0.767 — better than Brazil’s 0.754, Peru’s 0.740 and Colombia’s 0.727 — only slightly lower than its 2013 rating of 0.771, and significantly higher than its ranking of 0.677 in 2000, just as President Hugo Chavez came to power and initiated his Bolivarian Revolution.

In South America, only Chile, Argentina and Uruguay had higher rankings than Venezuela.

Overall, the U.N. report noted that despite the general progress recorded in the Human Development Index during the last 25 years, extreme poverty and exclusion persist in Latin America, mainly due to unequal distribution of income.

The report also addresses the role of women, who continue to be poorer in general terms, partly because of unpaid work that undermines their professional and personal development. It also identified a deepening of inequalities against the indigenous population, who on average receive fewer years of education.

The report highlights the need to target universal policies to reduce human development deficits among the excluded. It directly recommends promoting inclusive growth, with an emphasis on women and mobilizing resources to meet human development priorities.

“Investments focused on human development priorities can provide low-cost but high-quality services and infrastructure for disadvantaged and marginalized groups,” the report said.

Source*

Related Topics:

World Bank to Reduce Venezuela Payout in Exxon Case*

Evo Morales Defends Venezuela against Treacherous OAS Head*

Ecuador Education Rank Soars, Beating Finland in Quality Access*

 

 

U.S. Airstrikes Slaughter 230 Innocent Civilians in a Single Night in Mosul*

U.S. Airstrikes Slaughter 230 Innocent Civilians in a Single Night in Mosul*

By Matt Agorist

Reports coming out of Iraq this week are downright terrifying with local media reporting up to as many as 230 innocent civilians slaughtered in U.S. coalition airstrikes — in a single night.

According to the Kurdish media company, Rudaw, 137 people – most believed to be civilians – died when a bomb hit a single building in al-Jadida, in the western side of the city on Thursday. Another 100 were killed nearby.

As the British Telegraph reports, the casualties were “mostly women and children,” and “were pulled from three adjoining houses in the Jadida neighbourhood of west Mosul overnight Wednesday and into Thursday morning, according to witnesses.”

“There was so much bombing, and so many deaths,” an elderly woman said of the strikes.

“Pieces of human flesh were flying in all directions.”

According to Antiwar, Central Command said that they were “aware of the loss of life” and were carrying out “further investigation,” while insisting that all of their strikes against Mosul overnight “comply with the Law of Armed Conflict.”

Centcom also reported that “military forces conducted nine strikes consisting of 67 engagements coordinated with and in support of the government of Iraq against ISIS targets.”

Al Jazeera’s Stefanie Dekker, reporting from Erbil in northern Iraq, said fighting in the area had intensified in the last few days.

“For more than a week there was a stalemate as Iraqi forces struggled to advance on the Old City, but in the last few days, the fighting has intensified.

“There are air strikes and ISIL is also using civilians homes with civilians in them. People have been caught in crossfire and targeted by ISIL … The shelling is indiscriminate,” said Dekker.

“There is no safe passage out of the city. Civilians are literally everywhere.”

Reports from civilians in Mosul say ISIS fighters are employing tactics such as establishing fighting positions on the rooftops of apartment buildings. These buildings are occupied by innocent civilians and are also the targets of U.S. coalition strikes.

“ISIS made us keep our door open, so they could get onto the roofs at any time. They even broke down the walls between houses so they could move around,” a local resident told RT.

“There were so many killed in the airstrikes, rockets, and mortars… Our entire neighbourhood is in ruins. There are maybe ten houses still standing. The children are traumatized. When the jets start flying, they start crying,” another woman said.

If the aim of ISIS is to maximize civilian casualties by manipulating the US military into striking these targets, that, they have done. If their aim was to reduce the airstrikes, they have failed.

However, if we examine the mission of ISIS more closely, the former is far more likely.

The mission of ISIS is to create a rift in society in which there are extremists and everyone else. They want to eliminate the ‘gray zone’ — the area in which different religions and cultures peacefully coexist — by any means necessary. By using civilians as human shields, knowing that US forces will bomb them anyway, this tactic plays right into their strategy.

The men, women, and children who watched their father, mother, son, or daughter explode right before their eyes this week, as a U.S. bomb destroyed their home, will undoubtedly foster resentment toward the West. This approach is the most powerful recruiting tool the terrorist regime has.

As the Free Thought Project has previously reported, the West, in their constant bombardment, interference, meddling, and policing of the world, has fostered a breeding ground for terrorism. Indeed, America’s foreign policy, alone, since 9/11, has created a million Osama bin Ladens — all funding and arming of ISIS excluded.

Sadly, the military industrial complex shows no signs of slowing its cancer-like growth.

As long as Americans keep buying the lies spewing from the warmongering tyrants in power, nothing will change. As long as Boobus Americanus continues to believe “It’s our freedom they hate,” death and destruction will rain down — until there is nothing left.

Source*

Related Topics:

The U.S. Senate Just Sold out Your Internet Privacy*

The U.S. Senate Just Sold out Your Internet Privacy*

By Caleb Chen

Despite widespread disapproval from constituents, S.J.Res 34 has passed the United States Senate with a vote of 50-48, with two absent votes. Earlier today, at 12:25 Eastern March 23, 2017, the US Senate voted on S.J.Res 34, and will use the Congressional Review Act to strip away broadband privacy protections that kept Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and telecoms from selling your internet history and app data usage to third parties. S.J.Res 34 was first introduced by 23 Republican Senators earlier this month and its blitz approval is a giant blow to privacy rights in the United States.

The resolution, which is now effectively half passed, will hand responsibility of broadband privacy regulation from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and disallow the FCC from making any rules protecting Internet privacy ever again.

The 50 Senators that voted for S.J.Res 34 are (thanks to happyxpenguin):

Senator Roberts (R-KS)
Senator Lee (R-UT)
Senator Boozman (R-AR)
Senator Blunt (R-MO)
Senator Crapo (R-ID)
Senator Scott (R-SC)
Senator Cotton (R-AR)
Senator Hatch (R-UT)
Senator Capito (R-WV)
Senator Alexander (R-TN)
Senator Toomey (R-PA)
Senator Perdue (R-GA)
Senator Cochran (R-MS)
Senator Inhofe (R-OK)
Senator Ernst (R-IA)
Senator Lankford (R-OK)
Senator Collins (R-ME)
Senator Sullivan (R-AK)
Senator Thune (R-SD)
Senator McCain (R-AZ)
Senator Graham (R-SC)
Senator Wicker (R-MS)
Senator Grassley (R-IA)
Senator Burr (R-NC)
Senator Hoeven (R-ND)
Senator Tillis (R-NC)
Senator McConnell (R-KY)
Senator Heller (R-NV)
Senator Cruz (R-TX)
Senator Daines (R-MT)
Senator Portman (R-OH)
Senator Murkowsky (R-AK)
Senator Cassidy (R-LA)
Senator Flake (R-AZ)
Senator Johnson (R-WI)
Senator Rubio (R-FL)
Senator Corker (R-TN)
Senator Risch (R-ID)
Senator Gardner (R-CO)
Senator Young (R-IN)
Senator Barasso (R-WY)
Senator Moran (R-KS)
Senator Cornyn (R-TX)
Senator Enzi (R-WY)
Senator Kennedy (R-LA)
Senator Shelby (R-AL)
Senator Rounds (R-SD)

Source*

Related Topics:

U.S. Border Agents Are Now Searching Digital Devices: What Are Your Rights?

U.S. Erosion of the Civil Rights of Women

The New Travel Ban You Didn’t Hear About Is Against U.S. Citizens*

U.S. Lawmakers Introduce Legislation to Unleash Nuclear Arms Race in Europe*

Codifying Israeli Apartheid into U.S. Law!

U.S. House Bill Would Allow Employers to Demand Genetic Information from Workers*

Bill Quietly Introduced to Withdraw U.S. from the U.N.*

U.S. Earns $33 Billion Arms Sales in Eleven Months from the Destruction of Yemen*

U.S. Senate Blocks Bill to Audit the Federal Reserve*

U.S. Marshals Biometric Scan Passenger Retinas to Board Flight: “Like Everyone Else, I Complied”*

U.S. Military is Building a $100mn Drone Base in Africa*

 

Deep State Manipulations in Haiti and Genocide*

Deep State Manipulations in Haiti and Genocide*

By Ezili Danto

Popular former President Aristide survived an assassination attempt this week against the backdrop of increased violence in the world’s first black republic. The mandate of the deeply resented U.N. occupying force MINUSTAH ends in April and is set to be renewed. The violence is orchestrated to justify continued imperialist intervention that benefits foreigners and their local henchmen.

Besides the inexplicable burning down of the Croix Bossales and LaSaline market places, today [Monday, March 20] former president Jean Bertrand Aristide was shot at and at least two people standing in front of his motorcade were hit and killed. Aristide survived the assassination attempt. But these pointed violences, just a few weeks before the U.N. rules on extending its mission in Haiti, are routine.

“At least two people were injured after shots were fired at a motorcade carrying former Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide in Port-au-Prince Monday in an apparent assassination attempt.” –Shots fired at former President of Haiti Aristide.

The same foreign colonial forces that put in puppet president Jovenel Moise are continually manipulating the violence levels in Haiti to perpetuate their presence and colonnial interests in Haiti. (See, Barbarians Inside and at Haiti Gates: Israeli HLSI and Eva PeledNew Rochambeau Expedition to Haiti For Donald Trump led by Kenneth Merten and Haiti Can’t Seem to Disengage from “Henchman” Merten .)

U.N. Secretary-General António Guterres recommended that the Haiti U.N. mission (MINUSTAH) “be extended for a final period of six months” after its current mandate expires on April 15, 2017. The U.N. Security Council is expected to decide on whether to extend the Haiti mission on April 11. So, of course, weeks before this critical vote and with a new president in the White House who wants to cut back on U.N. peacekeeping expenditures, the violence in Haiti increases. There’s ample evidence of this pattern since the U.N. got to the foreign cash cow that’s called “Haiti.”

The timing of the whole increased insecurity thing in Haiti, so soon after the rigged elections and the carnival, are orchestrated to rile up the people and set them up for more genocide by U.N. trained police if not the U.S.-Euro colonial forces in U.N. and HLSI uniforms. The alphabet guys and Kenneth Merten are aiming to keep the U.N. or another version of these foreign militaries in Haiti.

They’re angling to prolong the MINUSTAH aka TOURISTAH’s vacation to maintain the colonnial status quo. (See,  L’ONU propose une nouvelle mission en Haïti https://t.co/UZXAUYKV4S  and https://goo.gl/2sKvlE)  The Haiti oligarchs already have tons of private military security contractors to watch over the plundered lands they helped take from the traumatized (earthquake/cholera-fake election-ravaged) Haiti peoples under Obama through Michel Martelly’s decrees and the Clintons’ “earthquake relief” initiatives. But the alphabet guys want their own mercenary crews also. Trump is threatening to cut back on USAID funding and U.N. mission funding.

The Israeli (HLSI)/MOSSAD-CIA contract to build nine custom ports in Haiti and do surveillance was set up by powerful people who, with Digicel telecom and the Bigio, Apaid, Boulos, Abdullah oligarchs, made sure to put a criminal parliament and Jovenel Moise into power against the will of the Haiti majority. They are NOT going to let Jovenel Moise’s illegitimate government fall, no matter what they’re saying to the contrary to Washington. It took these predators more than three years to put Jovenel Moise in power. The rumor that Jovenel Moise and his new PM Guy Lafontant are useless and will fall before the year is out, is just another means to manipulate President Donald Trump into financing the Kenneth Merten-Clinton ilks and more military into Haiti.

Jovenel Moise, the used car parts salesman and water peddler was built-up by Antonia Sola’s PR firm as a big banana exporter. This lie is lifted for all to see now that Moise is president.

The immorality and criminality of the Haitians in politics, in its Parliament, the schooled Diaspora that supports them and the Middle Eastern oligarchs which upholds this deprave carnival is simply unspeakable (See– http://elsie-news.over-blog.com/2017/03/ou-est-passe-la-plantation-de-banane-susceptible-d-exporter-des-bananes-en-alemagne-de-l-homme-banane-fait-president-par-la-ci-une-s)

The situation is terrible. Haiti is saddled with un-elected and illegitimate rulers. Martelly and his crew cleaned out the treasury and left a nearly $2billion PetroCaraibe debt owed to Venezuela and the state cannot even pay the interests on this debt. There’s strikes at the airport, hospitals and teachers, because state employees have not been paid for months on end. The misery, unrest and general dissatisfaction was to be expected.

The Clinton-Obama-Merten crew set it up with the deep state in order to further kill more innocent Haitians. Everyone in Haiti knows who the money launderers and drug traffickers are because they hold high political positions. But, what folks must understand is that no matter what the money laundering Haitian tokens are doing, it’s NOTHING compared to the CIA-covert operation-drug trafficking uses of Haiti for the global military intelligence complex. Haiti is the place the deep state stash the families of the Christian Arabs who they use to create instability in the Middle East Muslim countries. Haiti is the space where Acra’s cocaine shiploads and unexposed others make tons of monies for the CIA/DEA deep-state operations to conduct their wars in Libya, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, to name a few. No Haitian is more corrupt then their handlers. (Indicted money laundering, drug trafficker Guy Philippe’s current pleadings where he accuses the CIA of getting him into the drug business is a case in point.)

Looking at the most recent public strikes at the airport, by the unpaid teachers and doctors, today’s assassination attempt on Aristide and yesterday’s burning down of the poor market women marketplaces (notice it’s not the Bigio or Mevs businesses in Site Soley that are burned down, but the poorest of the poor’s commercial spaces), but if you know the routine of the alphabet guys in Haiti, you’ll understand that they rule through crisis after crisis. It seems to me these handlers want to create more insecurity to manipulate Trump into sending troops to Haiti or increasing the U.N. troops there more visibly…. I say the U.S. put Jovenel Moise in, let them do what’s necessary for the people to have some peace. Bigio, Digicel, Mevs should pay the teachers, doctors and airport personnel that Martelly left empty handed. For, if Trump takes the bait and sends more corrupt deep state CIA/DEA and military into Haiti, he will cast himself into the same role as the status quo he replaced and probably be a one term president. This won’t help the American working class nor the Haiti working classes.

President Preval just died unexpectedly. It’s a good thing that former President Jean Bertrand Aristide survived this assassination attempt. Be on guard Haitians. This current government is not ours and no Haitian life should be sacrificed to bring in more foreign military to kill Haitians. Stay alive Ayisyen. Sove tèt nou. Pran yon ti chez pou gade. Kite kriminèl yo tiye tèt yo poukont yo. Chanjman ap rive. Ginen poze.

♫♫Boukman o nan Bwa Kayiman
Nou lonmen non w
Nou pa denounen w, nan Bwa Kayiman
Papa Boukman o, nou wè ase
Papa Boukman o, nou rive nan tobout o
Peyi nou divize, lafanmi doz-a-do.
Nou pa te fè Bwa Kayiman
Pou n sèvi etranje.♫♫ 

Source*

Related Topics:

Fearing Aristide, the Illegal Haitian Government Continue to Persecute Him*

After Creating Haiti’s Cholera Crisis, U.N. Can Barely Fight It*

Media Caught Covering Up Clinton’s Ongoing Looting Of Haiti*

The Devastating Facts About Hurricane Matthew in Haiti Versus The Media’s Poetic Truth*

What Hillary Clinton Did To Haiti Should Scare any Voter*

CIA Plot to Exterminate Haitian Population Exposed*

Haitian People: Let Us Recover Our Dignity*

Haitians Are Rising Up Against the Stolen Elections*

The First U.S. invasion of Haiti (1915) Remembered*

Controling Haiti’s Gold