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Now Discovered the Lungs Make Blood*

Now Discovered the Lungs Make Blood*

Researchers have discovered that the lungs play a far more complex role in mammalian bodies than we thought, with new evidence revealing that they don’t just facilitate respiration – they also play a key role in blood production.

In experiments involving mice, the team found that they produce more than 10 million platelets (tiny blood cells) per hour, equating to the majority of platelets in the animals’ circulation. This goes against the decades-long assumption that bone marrow produces all of our blood components.

Researchers from the University of California, San Francisco also discovered a previously unknown pool of blood stem cells that makes this happen inside the lung tissue – cells that were incorrectly assumed to mainly reside in bone marrow.

“This finding definitely suggests a more sophisticated view of the lungs – that they’re not just for respiration, but also a key partner in formation of crucial aspects of the blood,” says one of the researchers, Mark R. Looney.

“What we’ve observed here in mice strongly suggests the lung may play a key role in blood formation in humans as well.”

While the lungs have been known to produce a limited amount of platelets – platelet-forming cells called megakaryocytes have been identified in the lungs before – scientists have long assumed that most of the cells responsible for blood production are kept inside the bone marrow.

Here, a process called haematopoiesis was thought to churn out oxygen-laden red blood cells, infection-fighting  white blood cells, and platelets – blood components required for the clotting that halts bleeding.

But scientists have now watched megakaryocytes functioning from within the lung tissue to produce not a few, but most of the body’s platelets.

So how did we miss such a crucial biological process this whole time?

The discovery was made possible by a new type of technology based on two-photon intravital imaging – a similar technique to one used by a separate team this week to discover a previously unidentified function of the brain’s cerebellum.

The process involves inserting a substance called green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the mouse genome –  a protein that’s naturally produced by bioluminescent animals such as jellyfish, and is harmless to living cells.

The mouse platelets started to emit bright green fluorescence as they circulated around the body in real time, allowing the team to trace their paths like never before.

They noticed a surprisingly large population of platelet-producing megakaryocytes inside the lung tissue, which initially didn’t make much sense, seeing as they’re usually associated with bone marrow.

“When we discovered this massive population of megakaryocytes that appeared to be living in the lung, we realised we had to follow this up,” says one of the team, Emma Lefrançais.

They found that this huge supply of megakaryocytes is actually producing more than 10 million platelets per hour in the lungs of mice, which means at least half of the body’s total platelet production is occurring in the lungs.

Here’s what it looks like:

Further experiments also revealed vast amounts of previously hidden blood stem cells and megakaryocyte progenitor cells (cells that give rise to megakaryocyte and red blood cells) sitting just outside the lung tissue – about 1 million per mouse lung.

When the researchers traced the entire ‘life cycle’ of the megakaryocytes, they found that they likely originate in the bone marrow, then make their way to the lungs, where they start platelet production.

“It’s fascinating that megakaryocytes travel all the way from the bone marrow to the lungs to produce platelets,” says one of the team, Guadalupe Ortiz-Muñoz.

“It’s possible that the lung is an ideal bioreactor for platelet production because of the mechanical force of the blood, or perhaps because of some molecular signalling we don’t yet know about.”

The researchers wanted to investigate if their discovery could have an effect on how we treat disorders such as lung inflammation, bleeding, and transplantation in the future, by transplanting lungs with fluorescent megakaryocyte progenitor cells into mice with low platelet counts.

The transplants produced a massive burst of platelets that quickly restored the depleted platelet counts to normal levels, and the effect lasted for several months.

Another experiment tested what would happen if the bone marrow wasn’t playing a role in blood production.

The team implanted lungs with fluorescent megakaryocyte progenitor cells into mice that had been engineered to have no blood stem cells in their bone marrow.

As Michael Irving reports for New Atlas, they watched as the fluorescent cells from the transplanted lungs made their way to the bone marrow, where they not only helped to produce platelets, but also other key blood components, such as neutrophils, B cells and T cells.

The findings will need to be replicated in humans before we can know for sure that the same process is occurring within our own bodies, but the study makes a strong case for this hidden function in what could be one of our most underrated organs.

It will likely also prompt scientists to investigate further how the bone marrow and lungs work together to produce our blood supply.

“It has been known for decades that the lung can be a site of platelet production, but this study amplifies this idea by demonstrating that the [mouse] lung is a major participant in the process,” Traci Mondoro from the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, who was not involved in the study, said in a press statement.

“Looney and his team have disrupted some traditional ideas about the pulmonary role in platelet-related hematopoiesis, paving the way for further scientific exploration of this integrated biology.”

The research has been published in Nature.

Source*

Related Topics:

Tuberculosis: An old Disease on the Rise Again!

Proper Movements in Muslim Prayer can Reduce Lower Back Pain*

Your Appendix may be more Important than you Think!

99.9999999% of Your Body is Empty Space*

Fifteen Foods to Detox Your Body*

The Human Body Emits, Communicates with, and is Made from Light*

Plant Neurobiology Shows How Trees are Just Like Humans*

Neuroscientists Discover New ‘mini-neural computer’ in the Brain*

Parents Told Five Times to Abort Boy with ‘no brain’ – Now He’s a Thriving 4-year-old*

Similarities between the Brain and the Universe*

Public Buses in Aleppo take to the Streets after 5 Years of U.S.’s ISIS war on Syria*

Public Buses in Aleppo take to the Streets after 5 Years of U.S.’s ISIS war on Syria*

By Alex Christoforou

The western mainstream media will never show you this video…it would destroy the narrative they tried so hard to peddle about “moderate rebels” and Assad barrel bombs.

Thank you Ruptly TV for this rare look at a city, and its people, returning to a sense of normality after being held hostage by US, Saudi, and Turkey supported Al Qaeda and ISIS jihadists, for over 5 years of terror.

This is what freedom and liberation looks like. The smiles on the faces on passengers. People walking in the streets, going about their normal lives.

Aleppo’s public transport system is slowly returning to normal. Buses cleaned and sent out into service, after five years of inactivity.

We could not even begin to imagine the terror that would have been in Aleppo had the Obama Administration had its way, and raised up a black ISIS flag over the city.

Look no further than Libya to see what was avoided in Aleppo…and finally, F*** YOU mainstream media for reporting fake news that would have destroyed the future of these people rising the bus.

Source*

Related Topics:

U.S. Deploying Thousands More Ground Troops to Kuwait to Fight in Iraq and Syria*

Minimal Aid from the U.N. for Aleppo Civilians*

Aleppo Citizens Celebrate Liberation of City*

Canadian Activist Exposes Western Media Lies on the Genocide in Aleppo*

U.S and its Partners in Crime Suffer ‘Meltdown of Sanity’ over Syria’s Aleppo Victory*

14+ U.S. Coalition Military Officers Captured by Syrian Special Forces in East Aleppo Bunker*

With Fighting Over, Aleppo Residents Speak of Terrorists’ Barbarism*

In Aleppo 4 Al-Qaeda Chiefs arrested; 1,000 Terrorists Surrender, and 50,000 Civilians Freed*

Syrian Soldier Breaks Down In Tears Upon Reunification With His Family in Aleppo*

The Astonishing Vision and Focus of Namibia’s Nomads*

The Astonishing Vision and Focus of Namibia’s Nomads*

The Himba people of Namibia can see fine details and ignore distraction much better than most other human beings – a finding that may reflect the many ways that modern life is changing our minds and abilities.

By David Robson

Nestled in a grassy valley of north-eastern Namibia, Opuwo may seem like a crumbling relic of colonial history. With a population of just 12,000, the town is so small that it would take less than a minute to drive from the road sign on one side of town to the shanty villages on other. Along the way, you would see a hotchpotch collection of administrative offices, a couple of schools, a hospital and a handful of supermarkets and petrol stations.

For many of the people living in the surrounding valley, however, this small town is also the first taste of modern life. The capital of the Kunene region, Opuwo lies in the heartland of the Himba people, a semi-nomadic people who spend their days herding cattle. Long after many of the world’s other indigenous populations had begun to migrate to cities, the Himba had mostly avoided contact with modern culture, quietly continuing their traditional life. But that is slowly changing, with younger generations feeling the draw of Opuwo, where they will encounter cars, brick buildings, and writing for the first time.

How does the human mind cope with all those novelties and new sensations? By studying people like the Himba, at the start of their journey into modernity, scientists are now hoping to understand the ways that modern life may have altered all of our minds. The results so far are fascinating, documenting a striking change in our visual focus and attention. The Himba people, it seems, don’t see the world like the rest of us.

The first hints that modernisation could change our vision came from the Victorian anthropologist WHR Rivers, who explored the islands of the Torres Strait, between Australia and Papua New Guinea at the turn of the 20th Century. As he met the locals, he offered them various sensory tests, including the following phenomenon, known as the Muller-Lyer illusion. Take a look at the two lines below left, and try it for yourself:

Which arrow appears to be longer – top of bottom? Your answer may depend on the ‘carpentered’ corners in your house (Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

 

In reality, the lines are exactly the same, but if you ask people to estimate their size, most Westerners claim that the second line (with the ‘feathers’ pointing outwards) is around 20% longer than the top line. During his expedition to the Torres Strait, however, Rivers found that the locals were far more accurate – they just didn’t seem to be as susceptible to the illusion. The anthropologist later repeated the experiment on the Toda people of southern India, finding exactly the same effect, and the same result has since been found in many other pre-modern societies, including the San people of the Kalahari Desert.

It’s a profound finding, showing that even the most basic aspects of our perception – which you may assume to be hardwired in the brain – are shaped by our culture and surroundings. One theory is that the illusion results from the fact that modern humans spend more time indoors, with lots of “carpentered corners”. If the angles along the edge of an object are out, an object is usually further away from us, like the distant wall of a room, whereas if the angles point inwards, it is usually closer to us, like the near side of a table (see above). The brain has learnt to process this perspective rapidly, helping us to estimate size at distance, but in the case of the illusion, that brain processing backfires. Like an irregular lens, our modern, urban brains distort the images hitting our retina, magnifying some parts of the scene and shrinking others.

When Jules Davidoff visited a Himba ‘kraal’, he found no traces of western influence in their way of life (Credit: Alamy)

 

Such studies, comparing different cultures, had been few and far between, however. As I have previously explored in another article for BBC Future’s The Human Planet series, most psychological studies have tended to use Weird (Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic) participants, using experiments on American undergraduate students to represent the whole of humanity. But Jules Davidoff at Goldsmith’s University in London, U.K., has bucked this trend, and his studies of the Himba offer some striking evidence that many more factors, beyond our “carpentered corners”, may be influencing our perception.

In many ways, the Himba are the absolute counterpoint to our modern, urban lifestyles. The herders live in small groups of wooden huts surrounding a sacred fire – thought to be the spiritual link to their ancestors – and a day’s work revolves around the rearing of cattle, sheep and goats, which they keep in an enclosure known as the “kraal”. The villages are semi-nomadic, and will move with the seasons to find new pastures for the livestock. To many Westerners, the Himba are most famous for their striking appearance, thanks to the rich red ochre that they spread over their skin and hair.

Davidoff’s team were scrupulously sensitive to the Himba’s way of life. They had to gain the permission of the village chief for each experiment, and typically performed the experiments outside the kraal; he says he was only once invited inside.

“The hut was really like this Stone Age thing – it was truly remarkable,” he says.

“There were no Western artefacts in their society,” he says.

Despite these basic circumstances, they are general healthy and well-fed.

“They really don’t seem to want for very much – it’s a nice life in many ways.”

Initially, Davidoff had been concerned about the ways these people would react to the laptops and electronic equipment that were crucial to some parts of his research; one colleague told him that the Himba would even be unfamiliar with pen or paper, let alone a computer. But he needn’t have worried; they seemed to adapt to the technology with no qualms at all. And so, with the chief’s permission and with the help of a translator, he has gently probed the ways they see the world.

Many of his first experiments centred on the Ebbinghaus Illusion:

Which circle appears bigger? Again, your reaction to this optical illusion will depend on your cultural background (Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

 

Westerners tend to see the central circle in the first picture as being smaller than the central circle in the second – when they are actually the same size. And just as Rivers had seen with the Muller Lyer illusion, Davidoff’s team found that the traditional Himba were far less susceptible than those of us living in modern societies.

The phenomenon seemed to reflect a basic bias towards “local processing” – they were more focused on the smaller details (the central circles) while ignoring the context (the surrounding ring) that warps your perception. To test this phenomenon further, he asked them to compare abstract figures made up of smaller figures – such as a square made of crosses, or a cross made of squares. (You can see examples here.) When judging the similarity of these pictures, the Himba were more likely to base their judgements on the smaller elements, rather than the overall shape – again suggesting a ‘local’ bias on fine details.

More strikingly still, later experiments showed this enhanced focus also seemed to be reflected in their ability to hold their attention and ignore distraction: when they were asked to quickly search for shapes in a grid, for instance, they were less easily distracted by the movements of other objects on the screen. In fact, they appeared to be the most focused of any groups previously studied.

Davidoff emphasises that the traditional Himba are flexible: they can easily see the “big picture” when encouraged to do so. Even so, their strong preference for focusing on the local details is puzzling.

One explanation for their astonishing focus may come from the cattle rearing itself. Identifying each cow’s markings was apparently essential for their daily life – and this practice may perhaps train the eye with a focus and attention that was lacking in all modern societies.

“I think that does come from their traditional lives – the powers to concentrate,” says Davidoff.

Himba people living their traditional life appear to have remarkable visual concentration, an ability to stay focused on the smallest details (Credit: Alamy)

 

But it could also be that modern life itself makes us more easily distracted by our surroundings. And it is for this reason that Opuwo is so interesting, as younger generations slowly migrate to the shanty villages on the edge of the small town. As the anthropologist David P Crandall put it in his book The Place of Stunted Ironwood Trees: “The fascination and attraction of city lights, even the dimmed and often fractured ones of Opuwo, proffer an allure and mystique, a cosmopolitan novelty to be found nowhere else in their world.” It is, he says, “the vanguard of change for the entire region… a crossroads of several worlds.”

To discover how this move might influence the Himba’s psychology, Davidoff’s team compared Himba migrants to the small town, with those still living the traditional lifestyle. As they had expected, the Himba who had spent years living on Opuwo were less focused on the local details (making them more susceptible to the Ebbinghaus illusion, for instance) than those living in the countryside. But you didn’t need to have spent your whole life in the town for it to have an effect; the team found that even very short day trips to Opuwo seemed to have had a lasting impact their perception, making them less focused on differences in the local details (and more conscious of the overall shape) when comparing two abstract figures, for instance. Needless to say, the influence was much greater for those who lived in the town – but it was still present even for the Himba who had only visited a couple of times. “There does seem to be a ‘dose effect’ – the more of it you have, the greater the effect becomes,” says Davidoff.

As Davidoff points out, urban environments are naturally more cluttered than the Kunene valley, with more objects vying for our attention. Just think about crossing the road, as your eyes dart from the traffic lights to the oncoming cars and the fellow pedestrians making their way towards you. Our attention needs to be more diffuse.

Then there’s the stress of urban life, compared to the relative tranquillity of life in the kraal. As Crandall described in The Place of Stunted Ironwood Trees:

“Though a stranger might at first hear only silence, the beat of a distant drum, the bicker of chatting voices, the grinding stones, the bleating and lowing of livestock, the rushing of wind, the chirping of birds, the clicking of insects, the stamping of feet, and the clapping of hands form a constant and familiar stream of sounds.”

The hustle and bustle of a town, in contrast, may put you on high-alert, and this stress primes your visual system to cast its net wider, as it is on the lookout for threat.

A Himba woman goes grocery shopping in Opuwo. Exposure to this busy visual environment may permanently change her perception (Credit: Alamy)

 

These are just hypotheses, however – and it is interesting to put it in the context of other research exploring non-Western cultures. The psychologist Richard Nisbett at the University of Michigan, for instance, has strong evidence that our vision can be influenced by our social lives: people who live in more interdependent, collectivist societies like Japan and China tend to focus more on the context of a social situation – and they also tend to pay more attention to the backgrounds of pictures; they are more ‘holistic’ and less ‘analytical’.

“If you are paying attention to the social world, you incidentally pay attention to the physical world too, so you end up noticing things that wouldn’t be noticed by someone with an analytical mindset,” says Nisbett.

(For more information, see our in-depth article: How East and West think in profoundly different ways.)

The Himba appear to live in a tight-knit community, rich in traditions that bind the whole group – so they would seem to be an exception to this rule. But Nisbett has also shown that people’s professions make a difference, even within the same culture: shepherds in Turkey tended to be less holistic than farmers or fishermen, for instance, perhaps because it brings a greater focus on the individual and less cooperation between group members. A closer examination of the Himba’s working and social lives, compared to other indigenous peoples, will help pick apart the various factors that shape their view of the world.

Davidoff also points out that we should beware reports exaggerating the perceptual differences in indigenous populations. He has seen some articles arguing that pre-modern people are puzzled by photographs, for instance – failing to comprehend the flat, 2D images of the world around them. In fact, the Himba were quite the opposite: they would often ask him to bring back photos on their return trips.

“They recognised other people in the group very quickly,” he says.

“I’m certain there was no concern about photographic reality.”

The love of a good selfie, it seems, can cross all cultural boundaries.

Source*

Related Topics:

Lost Posture: Why Some Indigenous Cultures Do not have Back Pain*

And their eyes glazed over -Technology and Attention Deficit*

Earth Magneticism and the Human Body

Linguistic Colours of Life*

Two Police Officers Turned in Badges in Support of Standing Rock Water Protectors*

Two Police Officers Turned in Badges in Support of Standing Rock Water Protectors*

By Lance Schuttler

It was reported by Redhawk at Standing Rock in North Dakota that two police officers have turned in their badges in support of the water protectors.

“There have been at least 2 reports of police officers turning in their badges acknowledging that this battle is not what they signed up for. You can see it in some of them, that they do not support the police actions. We must keep reminding them they are welcome to put down their weapons and badge and take a stand against this pipeline as well. Some are waking up.”- Redhawk

Hearts are opening...

Hearts are opening…

Hearts are opening

With actions from militarized police continuing to be seen as extremely violent and dangerous, this news is a big win for the water protectors and for humanity as a whole. While the actions of some police officers are not appropriate, we all must continue to visualize and intend/pray that the hearts of all involved in this situation continue to open. Police must be held accountable for their actions, though we must continue to welcome them over to the side of the water protectors.

Having the police lay down their weapons and join the people is the goal. It is also a win-win solution, which is the best case scenario. So what is it that opened the hearts of these two officers?

At the time of this writing, the answer is not known but we can speculate on a few different items.

  • Word is spreading quickly that there are 17 multi-national banks funding this pipeline and that the propaganda being spread about this deal “creating American jobs” or “helping America’s economy” is being seen as just that, propaganda. The American people, as well as people of the world, know that the big banks and U.S. Government does not care for the people, but only themselves. These banks and the government showed their hand in 2008 when they were bailed out after the stock market crash, leaving the public to bear the economic and social burdens. Even the police are becoming aware of this fact that the government and banks do not care for them and see the police only as pawns in a bigger game the government wishes to control.
  • Water is life is not just a meaningless slogan in many people’s minds. It is becoming understood by more and more that water IS indeed life. If water becomes toxic, all life that depends on that water becomes toxic…including the families of these same police officers who are currently protecting the construction sites. They too would be affected by toxic water.
  • It is innately traumatizing for humans to hurt other humans. While we have been seeing this for some time now with this situation, police officers are realizing the harm they do when they assault an unarmed, peaceful water protector. In essence, peace is wanting and needing to be established.

Take a look at what happened in Frankfurt, Germany in May of 2012. The police removed their helmets and began marching with the people who were protesting the big banks, while also safely escorting them down the streets.

Let us all use this latest news as a big step forward towards peace and resolution of this pipeline issue. The pipeline construction needs to and must stop. With the announcement from Barack Obama yesterday that the White House is considering “re-routing” the pipeline, we must continue to demand that it’s construction cease entirely. We can also view that statement as a buckling of the Establishment. Continue on, water protectors. Truth and love is spreading.

Source*

Related Topics:

Standing Rock Protestors Use Mirrors to Inspire Humility among Police Officers*

Mirrors Brought to Protests to Force Police to Look at What They’ve Become*

German Police Officers Take Off Helmets & Marched With German Citizens Against Rothschild European Central Bank!

Wisconsin Police Join the Mass Protest

Islamophobes Found Themselves Surrounded in a Sea of Diversity*

On the Rights of Nature*

On the Rights of Nature*

By Mari Margil

Reading headlines on the environment can be terrifying.

In November, a New York Times headline stated, “Great Barrier Reef Hit by Worst Coral Die-Off on Record, Scientists Say.” In December, USA Today reported “Giraffes face ‘silent extinction’ as population shrinks nearly 40%.” And in January, the Washington Post reported that “U.S. scientists officially declare 2016 the hottest year on record. That makes three in a row.

Environmental degradation is advancing around the world. The United Nations has warned that we are heading toward “major planetary catastrophe.” With this there is a growing recognition of the need for fundamental change in how we, humankind, live on planet.

More than forty years after the passage of the major federal environmental laws in the United States, including the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act – laws which are now mirrored around the world – the earth’s species, waterways, oceans, coral reefs, forests, and other ecosystems are rapidly declining.

These environmental laws, rather than protecting the rights of the environment to exist and thrive, instead regulate its use and exploitation. Thus, environmental laws largely legalize harm – including fracking, mountaintop removal mining, and pipelines – rather than protect against it.

These laws are premised on nature being considered property under the law, and therefore, as right-less. Much like indigenous peoples, slaves, and women have been considered right-less under the law – unable to defend their own basic rights to life and well-being – so today do environmental laws treat nature.

A movement is building to advance a different paradigm, one which is recognizing the inherent rights of nature

Rights of nature laws have now been passed in more than three dozen communities in the United States, as well as codified in Ecuador’s Constitution. These laws recognize the inalienable rights of nature – or Pacha Mama as is stated in Article 71 of the Ecuador Constitution – to exist, thrive, evolve, and be restored. These laws transform nature from being property under the law to being rights-bearing.

While the passage of laws recognizing the rights of nature is new – the first laws in the world were first established within the past decade or so – the idea of nature having rights is not new.

Many have said that the recognition of legal rights of nature is a codification of indigenous culture into law, thus reaching back thousands of years of human history. More recently, though still more than a century ago, environmentalist John Muir wrote that we must respect “the rights of all the rest of creation.” In 2015, Pope Francis called for a new era of environmental protection, stating in a speech before the United Nations, “A true ‘right of the environment’ does exist…”

Much of the more modern day discussion heralds back to Professor Christopher Stone’s 1972 law review article titled “Should Trees Have Standing – Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects” in which he considered why we might want, and what it might mean, to recognize legal rights of nature.

Stone described how under the existing structure of law, nature was considered “right-less” having no legally recognized rights to defend and enforce. Thus, nature – much like slaves once were – was treated by the law as a thing, as property, existing for the use of its owner.

Moving from the idea of rights of nature to the codification of those rights in law first occurred in Tamaqua Borough in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, in 2006. Now communities in a number of states have such laws in place, the largest being Pittsburgh, where the City Council unanimously passed the rights of nature law in 2010. These laws recognize that ecosystems and natural communities have the legal right to exist and flourish, and that residents and their government have the authority to enforce and defend those rights.

There are several cases now in the United States, in which oil and gas companies are challenging laws recognizing the rights of nature. The companies , Pennsylvania General Energy and Seneca Resources, are claiming that these laws – which prohibit fracking related activities as a violation of the rights of nature – violate their corporate constitutional rights. The Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund (for which the author works) is representing ecosystems that are seeking to intervene in the cases to defend their own rights.

In Ecuador, we are also beginning to see the impact of these laws, as indigenous and non-indigenous peoples, communities, and public interest organizations seek to enforce and defend the rights of nature in the face of numerous threats from governmental and corporate actors.

In a 2015 decision related to illegal shrimp farming, the Constitutional Court of Ecuador explained that enshrining the rights of nature in the country’s constitution establishes a “biocentric vision in which nature is prioritized, as opposed to the classical anthropocentric conception in which the human being is the center and measure of all things, whereas nature was considered a mere provider of means.”

The Court ruled that the lower court, which had earlier ruled in the case, had failed to consider the rights of nature in its decision. In not considering these rights, the Court explained, the lower court failed to recognize that the rights of nature are “transversal” such that “all the actions of the State, as well as of individuals, must be in observance…to the rights of nature.”

The Court explained that under Ecuador’s Constitution, nature is now a holder of rights, and that government and the people have a responsibility to uphold and protect those rights. This comes with the recognition that until and unless we establish a harmonious relationship with nature – much different than humankind’s relationship with the natural world today – we will continue to see the decline of ecosystems and species, the very fabric of life.

As communities in the United States advance the rights of nature, and in Ecuador people seek to defend the constitutional rights of nature, peoples in other parts of the world are advancing such rights as well.

In India, for example, the National Ganga River Rights Act is being advanced for consideration by the national Parliament. Half a billion people depend on the river, yet it is an ecosystem in severe decline. The Act would establish rights of the river to exist and flourish, and the right of people of India to water and a healthy, thriving river ecosystem.

In Nepal, a rights of nature constitutional amendment is being considered to address climate change. As one of the world’s most mountainous nations, Nepal is facing the melting of the Himalayan glaciers, which people, species, and ecosystems throughout the country depend on for water. As a Sherpa explained to me, with the melting of ice and snow, “The mountains are turning black.”

The Ho-Chunk Nation in Wisconsin is the first tribal nation in the United States to advance an amendment to their tribal constitution to recognize the rights of nature. In September 2016, the Ho-Chunk General Council voted overwhelmingly in support of the proposed amendment. A vote of the full membership is expected later this year.

The preamble to the proposed Ho-Chunk constitution amendment reads:

Whereas, in the tradition of the Nation’s relationship with Mother Earth, from which we came and upon which we depend…we recognize that to protect Mother Earth, we must place the highest protections on nature, through the recognition of rights in the Nation’s highest law, our Constitution…

As Bill Greendeer of the Ho-Chunk Nation explained,

Passing the Rights of Nature amendment will help us protect our land.

Source*

Related Topics:

Schooled in Nature: There’s a way to Teach Children Without Colonizing Their Minds*

Nature Doesn’t Need People

Do Women Who Surround Themselves With Nature Live Longer?

Has a Foreign Fracking Company Quietly Buys Rights to Botswana Conservation Park?*

****Up Nature: Sex change for Nine-year-olds*

Bolivia: Rights of Mother Earth Becomes Legal*

Law of Mother Earth: Chile Suspends Nature Buster!

Seattle Council Votes to Divest Billions from Wells Fargo over DAPL Support*

Couple Forced to Destroy 40yo Pond on their Own Property because Govt Owns the Rainwater*

Kenya: Rights Of Mother Earth: Maasai Response

Humans Have Between 9 – 21 Senses In Total!?*

Humans Have Between 9 – 21 Senses In Total!?*

We have more than five senses

We have more than five senses

We have more than five senses. Image credit:
Have you ever heard the expression someone has a sixth sense? Why limit our senses to a sixth sense?

Actually, according to scientists, humans can have between 9 to 21 senses in total!

The idea that humans have only five sense is a pure myth. Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC), ancient Greek philosopher and scientist is credited with the traditional classification of the five sense organs: sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing.  Aristotle was wrong, but the myth of five senses persists.

Currently, there is no concrete definition of what constitutes a sense, but according to most researchers a sense is a feeling or perception produced through the organs of touch, taste , etc., or resulting from a particular condition of some part of the body. In order for us to have a sense, there needs to be a sensor. Each sensor is tuned to one specific sensation. For example, there are sensors in your eyes that can detect light.

The five senses mentioned by Aristotle are what we call traditional senses, but there are also additional senses such as:

Equilibrioception: Simply known as the sense of balance. It is helps prevent humans and animals from falling over when standing or moving.

Proprioception: This is the perception of one’s body in space or the body’s position. Even if a person is blindfolded, he or she knows through proprioception if an arm is above the head or hanging by the side of the body.

Thermoception: is the sense of heat. Specialized cellular sense receptors (thermoreceptors) allow the detection of cold and hot temperatures. It means we know which object is hot without touching it.

Nociception: is the ability to feel pain.

Magnetoception: is the ability to detect magnetic fields. Unlike birds, humans do not have a strong sense of magnetoception, but we still have a certain orientation of when detecting the Earth’s magnetic field.

We also have stretch receptors. These are found in such places as the lungs, bladder, stomach, blood vessels, and the gastrointestinal tract.

Our chemoreceptors help us to detect chemicals in the environment.

Familiarity is part of our recognition memory. A strong sense of familiarity can occur without any recollection, for example in cases of deja vu.

Hunger and thirst are also senses. The sense of time is still debated, but researchers have discovered humans have an astonishing accurate sense of time, particularly when younger.

Other senses are pressure, itch, and muscle tension.

Many people would also say that intuition is also a sense, but there is still isn’t enough conclusive evidence to add it to our sense list. However, more and more scientists are becoming convinced some humans are able to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning.

Scientists who study the phenomenon say it’s a very real ability that can be identified in lab experiments and visualized on brain scans.

What is certain is that humans certainly do have more than five senses.

 

 Source*

Related Topics:

Bringing Adventure, Nature and Imagination Back into Children’s Play Time*

Tribal Parenting – How to Heal Our Children*

“You” are not Your Rational Mind*

Your brain does not process information, or…*

Your Iman is Not Safe in the Hands of Just Your Intellect*

How the Media Uses Neuro-Linguistic Programming*

The Schumann Resonance Rising and Higher Consciousness*

The Schumann Resonance Rising and Higher Consciousness*

The Schumann resonances are oscillating magnetic frequencies that happen in the Earth’s electromagnetic spectrum. They are said to be generated by electromagnetic changes that happen within the earth’s core, that then affect the earth’s surface, and ionosphere, including the sentient beings living upon it. This resonance has been about the same for hundreds, if not thousands of years, but it seems to be changing. Why?

It has been assumed that the Earth, along with all living things on earth, is surrounded and protected with this natural frequency of pulsation of 7.83 HZ, or the Schumann resonance. The ancient Indian Rishis called this sound, OM. Whether by coincidence or not, it also happens to be a very powerful frequency to use with brainwave entrainment allowing human beings to access their full brains, and heightened consciousness.

Though the Schumann resonance can vary dependent upon the geographic location, it has been hovering around 7.8 cycles per second for years. This resonance is thought to be the ‘heartbeat of the earth,’ an oscillating frequency which we ourselves attune to in order to stay in balance energetically.

Gregg Braden claims to have found evidence that HAARP and other weaponized weather is messing with the Schumann resonance, offering that there is evidence in the Seattle library’s archives, and though this has not been verified, many others have suggested that that the Schumann frequency is not only altered to control us, but that we can also alter it, depending on our own level of consciousness.

In 2014, it was considered anomalous for the Schumann resonance frequency to have risen from its usual 7.83 HZ to somewhere in the 15-25 levels.

It looked like this in 2014

It looked like this in 2014

It looked like this in 2014:

This is what it looks like now: http://imgur.com/a/KUnqq Spike in Schumann Resonance in 2017

This is what it looks like now: http://imgur.com/a/KUnqq Spike in Schumann Resonance in 2017

 

There have been peaks to up to 36 HZ in recent days.

You can also track this in real time using the Space Observing System, here.

As the Heart Math institute’s research has revealed by collecting a continuous stream of data from the earth’s magnetic field, there does seem to be a shift occurring in global consciousness, evidenced by changes in the Schumann frequency. You can look at a spectrogram calendar to see the changes for yourself, here.

Moreover, the research suggests that when many people are in peaceful alignment, the resonance changes to reflect that. In other words, we are changing the magnetosphere of the planet with our thoughts and actions. This ‘coherence’ is likely being supported inter-galactically as well.

As NASA details,

“At any given moment about 2,000 thunderstorms roll over Earth, producing some 50 flashes of lightning every second. Each lightning burst creates electromagnetic waves that begin to circle around Earth captured between Earth’s surface and a boundary about 60 miles up. Some of the waves – if they have just the right wavelength – combine, increasing in strength, to create a repeating atmospheric heartbeat known as Schumann resonance. This resonance provides a useful tool to analyze Earth’s weather, its electric environment, and to even help determine what types of atoms and molecules exist in Earth’s atmosphere.

The waves created by lightning do not look like the up and down waves of the ocean, but they still oscillate with regions of greater energy and lesser energy. These waves remain trapped inside an atmospheric ceiling created by the lower edge of the “ionosphere” – a part of the atmosphere filled with charged particles, which begins about 60 miles up into the sky. In this case, the sweet spot for resonance requires the wave to be as long (or twice, three times as long, etc.) as the circumference of Earth. This is an extremely low frequency wave that can be as low as 8 Hertz (Hz) – some one hundred thousand times lower than the lowest frequency radio waves used to send signals to your AM/FM radio. As this wave flows around Earth, it hits itself again at the perfect spot such that the crests and troughs are aligned. Voila, waves acting in resonance with each other to pump up the original signal.

While they’d been predicted in 1952, Schumann resonances were first measured reliably in the early 1960s. Since then, scientists have discovered that variations in the resonances correspond to changes in the seasons, solar activity, activity in Earth’s magnetic environment, in water aerosols in the atmosphere, and other Earth-bound phenomena.”

What NASA does not detail is how human consciousness can interact with these frequencies to change them. The Heart Math Institute calls this global coherence, but it is also known in hundreds of ancient texts as the ‘awakening.’

Additional scientific findings suggest:

  1. The Schumann Resonances are observed by experiment to emerge at several frequencies related to brainwaves. They range between 6 and 50 cycles per second, specifically 7.8 (alpha), 14 (low beta), 20 (mid beta), 26 (high beta), 33 (high beta), 39 (gamma) and 45Hz (gamma), with a daily variation of about +/- 0.5 Hertz.
  2. 83 is the strongest of the seven resonances, in the alpha brainwave range. If the rise in resonance continues, this primary resonance, the earth pulse, changes from sub band low alpha (7-10Hz) to sub band high alpha (10-12Hz), perhaps influencing our ability to deeply relax, balance and integrate our mind/body connection. It could influence REM sleep and dreaming. If it continues to rise, it will breach the threshold into ‘fast’ beta activity. Low beta (12-15Hz) is associated with lack of focused attention, and low beta can even reflect Attention Deficit Disorder.
  3. The amplitude (i.e. intensity) of the Schumann resonance is not constant, and appears to be extremely dependent upon tropical (and hence global) temperature. Indeed preliminary results seem to indicate that a mere one degree increase in temperature seems to be correlated with a doubling of the SR. This could not be more significant, as it is unknown what psychobiological effect these fluctuations could have on humans.

It seems the ‘awakening’ is happening through us, and to us, from within and via ‘external’ influences. Without doubt though the Schumann resonance is changing significantly, what remains to be seen, are the ramifications of these changes.

Source*

Related Topics:

Schumann Resonance Fluctuating Frequency *

Schumann Frequency Resonance of the Earth Has Doubled*

Schumann Resonance of our Being

The Electro-magnetic Warfare on our Consciousness*

Plasma Waves and Obama’s Executive Order Regarding Space Weather Events*

U.S. Air Force to Alter Atmosphere with Plasma Bombs*

Earth Weakening Defences as Veil of Plasma is Discovered

CERN: Connection between Particles and Influenced Human Consciousness*

Cosmic Rays Evolve Consciousness and Transform DNA*

The aql is not Reason – it’s Consciousness*

In the Beginning was/is Consciousness*