Tag Archive | Africa

The U.S. is Waging a Massive Shadow War in Africa, Exclusive Documents Reveal*

The U.S. is Waging a Massive Shadow War in Africa, Exclusive Documents Reveal*

By Nick Turse

Six years ago, a deputy commanding general for U.S. Army Special Operations Command gave a conservative estimate of 116 missions being carried out at any one time by Navy SEALs, Army Green Berets, and other special operations forces across the globe.

Today, according to U.S. military documents obtained by VICE News, special operators are carrying out nearly 100 missions at any given time — in Africa alone. It’s the latest sign of the military’s quiet but ever-expanding presence on the continent, one that represents the most dramatic growth in the deployment of America’s elite troops to any region of the globe.

In 2006, just 1% of all U.S. commandos deployed overseas were in Africa. In 2010, it was 3%. By 2016, that number had jumped to more than 17%. In fact, according to data supplied by U.S. Special Operations Command, there are now more special operations personnel devoted to Africa than anywhere except the Middle East — 1,700 people spread out across 20 countries dedicated to assisting the U.S. military’s African partners in their fight against terrorism and extremism.

“At any given time, you will find SOCAFRICA conducting approximately 96 activities in 20 countries,” Donald Bolduc, the U.S. Army general who runs the special operations command in Africa (SOCAFRICA), wrote in an October 2016 strategic planning guidance report. (The report was obtained by VICE News in response to a Freedom of Information Act request and is published in its entirety below.) VICE News reached out to SOCAFRICA and U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) for clarification on these numbers; email return receipts show an AFRICOM spokesperson “read” three such requests, but the command did not offer a reply.

The October 2016 report offers insight into what the U.S. military’s most elite forces are currently doing in Africa and what they hope to achieve. In so doing, it paints a picture of reality on the ground in Africa today and what it could be 30 years from now.

That picture is bleak.

“Africa’s challenges could create a threat that surpasses the threat that the United States currently faces from conflict in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria,” Bolduc warned.

He went on to cite a laundry list of challenges with which he and his personnel must contend: ever-expanding illicit networks, terrorist safe havens, attempts to subvert government authority, a steady stream of new recruits and resources.

Bolduc indicated his solution was the “acceleration of SOF [special operations forces] missions [filling] a strategic gap as the military adjusts force structure now and in the future.” Translation: U.S. commandos “in more places, doing more” in Africa going forward.

At the same time, Bolduc says the U.S. is not at war in Africa. But this assertion is challenged by the ongoing operations aimed at the militant group al-Shabaab in Somalia, which operates often in all-but-ungoverned and extraordinarily complex areas Bolduc calls “gray zones.”

In January, for example, U.S. advisers conducting a counterterrorism operation alongside local Somali forces and troops from the African Union Mission in Somalia “observed al-Shabaab fighters threatening their safety and security” and “conducted a self-defense strike to neutralize the threat,” according to a press release from AFRICOM.

A U.S. Army Green Beret patrols with Nigerian soldiers during a training exercise in February. (Photo by Staff Sgt. Kulani Lakanaria)

 

Earlier this month, in what AFRICOM described as “an advise-and-assist operation alongside Somali National Army forces,” Navy SEAL Kyle Milliken was killed and two other U.S. personnel were injured during a firefight with al-Shabaab militants about 40 miles west of Somalia’s capital, Mogadishu. The battle occurred shortly after President Donald Trump loosened Obama-era restrictions on offensive operations in Somalia, thereby allowing U.S. forces more discretion and leeway in conducting missions and opening up the possibility of more frequent airstrikes and commando raids.

“It allows us to prosecute targets in a more rapid fashion,” Gen. Thomas Waldhauser, the AFRICOM commander, said of the change. In April, the U.S. military reportedly requested the locations of aid groups working in the country, an indication that yet a greater escalation in the war against al-Shabaab may be imminent.

“Looking at counterterrorism operations in Somalia, it’s clear the U.S. has been relying heavily on the remote-control form of warfare so favoured by President Obama,” said Jack Serle, who covers the subject for the London-based Bureau of Investigative Journalism.

Recently, the U.S. has augmented this strategy, working alongside local Somali forces and African Union troops under the banner of “train, advise, and assist” missions and other types of “support” operations, according to Serle. “Now they partner with local security forces but don’t engage in actual combat, the Pentagon says. The truth of that is hard to divine.”

U.S. operations in Somalia are part of a larger continent-spanning counterterrorism campaign that saw special operations forces deploy to at least 32 African nations in 2016, according to open source data and information supplied by U.S. Special Operations Command. The cornerstone of this strategy involves training local proxies and allies — “building partner capacity” in the military lexicon.

“Providing training and equipment to our partners helps us improve their ability to organize, sustain, and employ a counter violent extremist force against mutual threats,” the SOCAFRICA report says.

As part of its increasing involvement in the war against Boko Haram militants in the Lake Chad Basin — it spans parts of Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, and Chad — for example, the U.S. provided $156 million to support regional proxies last year.

In addition to training, U.S. special operators, including members of SEAL Team 6, reportedly assist African allies in carrying out a half dozen or more raids every month. In April, a U.S. special operator reportedly killed a fighter from Joseph Kony’s Lord’s Resistance Army during an operation in the Central African Republic. U.S. forces also remain intimately involved in conflict in Libya after the U.S. ended an air campaign there against the Islamic State group in December.

“We’re going to keep a presence on the ground… and we’re going to develop intelligence and take out targets when they arise,” Waldhauser said in March.

Though Bolduc said special operators are carrying out about 96 missions on any given day, he didn’t specify how many total missions are being carried out per year. SOCAFRICA officials did not respond to several requests for that number.

The marked increase in U.S. activity tracks with the rising number of major terror groups in Africa. A 2012 version of SOCAFRICA’s strategic planning documents also obtained by VICE News lists five major terror groups. The October 2016 files list seven by name — al-Qaida in the Lands of the Islamic Magreb, ISIS, Ansar al-Sharia, al-Murabitun, Boko Haram, the Lord’s Resistance Army, and al-Shabaab — in addition to “other violent extremist organizations,” also known as VEOs. In 2015, Bolduc said that there are nearly 50 terrorist organizations and “illicit groups” operating on the African continent.

Terror attacks in sub-Saharan Africa have skyrocketed in the past decade. Between 2006 and 2015, the last year covered by data from the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism at the University of Maryland, attacks jumped from about 100 per year to close to 2,000. “From 2010 to the present,” Bolduc says in the report, “VEOs in Africa have been some of the most lethal on the planet.”

“Many of Africa’s indicators are trending downward,” he writes.

“We believe the situation in Africa will get worse without our assistance.”

Colby Goodman, the director of the Washington, D.C.–based Security Assistance Monitor, pointed to some recent tactical gains against terror groups, but warned that progress might be short-lived and unsustainable. “My continuing concerns about U.S. counterterrorism strategy in Africa,” he said, “is an over-focus on tactical military support to partner countries at the expense of a more whole-government approach and a lack of quality assessments and evaluations of U.S. security aid to these countries.”

Read the entire document on >>>

Related Topics:

What I’ve Learnt about U.S. Foreign Policy

Leaked Trump Presidential Memo Would Free U.S. Companies to Buy Conflict Minerals from Central African Warlords*

The U.S. Elite Troops Partner with African Forces but Pursue U.S. Aims*

Stop E.U. from Hijacking Africa’s Clean Energy Future*

U.S. Military is Building a $100mn Drone Base in Africa*

“U.S. Destroyed Libya to re-colonize Africa”*

George Clooney Paid to Oppose War Profiteering by Africans Disloyal to the U.S. Agenda*

Bishop Badejo: U.S. won’t fight Boko Haram because of their Eugenics Agenda in Africa*

The Imperial Vultures to Gather for the U.S.-Africa Summit*

Europe and U.S. Dodging Demands for Slavery Reparations*

World Bank Funds some of Africa’s most Notorious Land Grabs*

 

Europe and U.S. Dodging Demands for Slavery Reparations*

Europe and U.S. Dodging Demands for Slavery Reparations*

European Slavery lasted over 400 years on estates in the Caribbean and The Americas. Now the descendants of African slaves are demanding not just apologies but also atonement for the greatest crime against humanity ever known to mankind

 

By Earl Bousquet

The recent furore in Grenada over whether slave history has a role in tourism promotion is an important development that fits smack in the middle of the ongoing Caribbean discussion on reparations from Europe for slavery and native genocide.

Today, over 180 years after abolition, descendants of African slaves in the Caribbean, North and South America are demanding reparations for slavery from Europe – and the United States.

In the Caribbean, the demands include apology and atonement for 400 years of both slavery and native genocide; in the USA it’s about compensation for African American descendants of slaves; and in South America, today’s descendants of Africans (who arrived both as shipwrecked mariners and slaves) are demanding their fair share of recognition, equality and atonement.

Africa and the Caribbean experienced the brunt of the brutal slave trade that saw Europeans sail to West Africa, kidnap millions of men and women and ship them like animal cargo to the newly colonized ‘West Indies’ captured through wars of extermination against the original native ‘Caribs’ and ‘Arawaks’.

While the focus of British and French slavery was mainly concentrated on the Antillean (Caribbean) islands and mainland territories (including Haiti) that they claimed to own, the Portuguese and Spanish concentrated on South American mainland territories such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, as well as the larger islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico.

In the case of the USA and South America (except in Brazil), African descendants form small minorities, unlike the 15 Caribbean Community (CARICOM) member-states, where they form an absolute majority, in each case.

CARICOM governments have thus easily and collectively agreed to a joint approach to the European Union (E.U.) member-states that benefited from slavery, inviting them to discuss reparations by way of acknowledgement and atonement.

The E.U. countries have so far resisted engaging the Caribbean in any discussions whatsoever on reparations, the likes of former British PM David Cameron saying during an official visit to Jamaica that traditional aid and assistance given by Britain since independence to the former colonies has sufficed.

But the response by the Britain, Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain, thus far, (or lack thereof) is very much unlike when France demanded reparations after the first African slaves in the Caribbean – and the world — successfully revolted.

Haitian slaves, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, rebelled in 1791 and declared their independence in 1804. Not even in Africa had a free nation yet been born and the humiliated slave masters enlisted the support of the French government to make the former slaves pay dearly for their freedom.

In 1825, France demanded 90 million gold francs to recognize Haiti’s independence — the same amount demanded in compensation by the former slave masters.

Historians and economists agree that this high cost paid by Haiti to France over 122 years (payments continued until 1947) is largely responsible for the country having been almost eternally anchored in poverty.

In 2003, Haitian President Jean Bertrand Aristide called on Paris to return the 90 million gold francs, by then estimated at U.S. $21 billion. Soon after, however, he was swiftly and secretly taken hostage by U.S. and French forces and exiled to South Africa.

French President Francois Hollande, in May 2015, ahead of a visit to Port au Prince, said Paris “will repay its debt” to Haiti – only to later retract, saying he only meant repaying France’s “moral debt”.

The Hollande disappointment notwithstanding, no other concerned E.U. member-state has even mentioned the possibility of considering paying reparations for slavery – in the Caribbean or North or South America.

Same in the USA, where not even President Barack Obama accommodated calls to initiate reparations moves and to pay to survivors the wages of the slaves who built the White House.

In 1865, Union General William Sherman set aside thousands of acres of land for newly-freed American slaves, by way of a special field order. But President Andrew Johnson soon returned the titles to the original white owners. Freed slaves were also each promised “40 acres and mule” to start their own lives. But here too they were disappointed.

The U.S. Congressional Black Caucus has for the past 28 years backed a bill called HR-40, submitted annually by Michigan Rep. John Conyers, calling for a commission to study “the Reparations Proposals for African Americans Act”. Designed to examine the negative effects of slavery, it also seeks to “recommend appropriate remedies”. But HR-40 has long been referred to the House Judiciary Committee, where it has since remained…

U.S. blacks are somewhat divided over what mechanism to use to assess the real costs and value of slave wages and related rates of conversion over the centuries slavery lasted.

Likewise, white Americans largely reject calls by blacks for reparations, some seriously arguing that ‘slaves were freed by the Civil War’ and ‘blacks benefited from affirmative action’ government policies over the years.

The reparations movement is however gaining traction across the hemispheric horizon.

The momentum has just begun in South America, with an International Reparations Conference held in Cali, Colombia in March 2017, essentially to outline a road map for the movement for recognition and inclusion of the African-descended minority across the continent.

The African Americans are encouraged by a 2016 report by the Geneva-based United Nations Working Group on People of African Descent, urging U.S. lawmakers to implement reparations, citing “a legacy of colonial history, enslavement, racial subordination and segregation, racial terrorism and racial inequality.”

Also, according to an exclusive poll released in March 2017 in conjunction with a new PBS Series ‘Point Taken’, 40% of US ‘millennials’ think there should be reparations for African American descendants of enslaved people.

Indeed, some of the leaders of the revived reparations movement in the USA are confident enough of the momentum gained thus far to conclude that ‘this could be reparations’ best chance since 1865.’

In the Caribbean, the governments’ approach is naturally quite different from North and South America – more diplomatic than agitational, seeking dialogue over confrontation.

In March 2014, the CARICOM governments unanimously adopted the ten-point plan to demand “Reparatory Justice for the victims of Crimes against Humanity in the forms of genocide, slavery, slave trading and racial apartheid.” The E.U. member-states that built their imperial wealth on slavery were also duly informed.

A CARICOM Regional Reparations Commission was also appointed (chaired by the vice chancellor of the University of the West Indies Sir Hilary Beckles), with national reparations committees also established in member-states.

The Caribbean hasn’t put a price tag on slavery, even though a sum of US $17 trillion is often mentioned. Instead, it’s seeking a mutually agreed CARICOM-E.U. approach to what forms the atonement will take, to the common and mutual benefit of all the CARICOM states and peoples.

Failing this negotiated approach, the Caribbean countries reserve the right to file formal criminal charges against the culprit E.U. member-states at the International Criminal Court (ICC)).

Citing the will of the Western world to proudly acknowledge and atone for the Jewish Holocaust, reparations paid by the U.S. government to Japanese interned during World War II, reparations made to U.S. native peoples and Britain recently being ordered by its own courts to pay reparations to tribal Kenyan ‘Mau -Mau’ independence fighters, CARICOM feels it has a very good case.

Those demanding reparations for slavery everywhere are also buoyed by the U.N.’s declaration of 2015 to 2024 as the Decade for People of African Descent.

The CARICOM Prime Ministerial Subcommittee on Reparations (led by Barbados Prime Minister Freundel Stuart) met in late April 2017 to review European responses to their request for a negotiated settlement.

In the meantime, the 15 member-states, including Haiti, are preparing their individual legal cases for collective submission to the ICC, should the culprit E.U. member-states continue to dodge and dither to duck their individual and collective responsibilities for the greatest ‘crime against humanity’ known to mankind.

The reparations demands by African descendants in CARICOM, U.S. and South American states do have the backing of regional and international entities, including similar non-governmental Europe-based movements and an increasing level of interest and support from African states and entities, including the African Union (A.U.) and the Pan African Congress (PAC).

The European and American governments today may continue to duck their responsibilities. But the results of the strong reparations demands on them, whether achieved today or tomorrow, also offer added hope to the likes of the Australian Aborigines and New Zealand’s Maori first peoples, who may have received formal apologies, but continue to feel treated less than equal in the lands they first inhabited.

Meanwhile, the Grenada ‘slavery and tourism’ discussion is an interesting starting point to revive earlier discussions on the establishment of a national reparations committee (NRC) for Grenada, Carriacou and Petit Martinique.

That will not only be in line with the reality of the vast majority of CARICOM member-states (where NRCs exist), but will also facilitate ongoing discussion across the three-island state on reparations and related issues during the U.N. Decade for People of African Descent, which continues until December 31, 2024.

Source*

Related Topics:

French Presidential Favorite Macron sparks firestorm for Speaking the Truth about Colonization*

Slavery: The Anniversary of the Official Ending of a System that Bankrolled and Civilized Cameron’s British Empire*

Call for UK to Pay India Reparations for Colonial-era Damage*

Tanzania Demands Reparations for German Colonial Atrocities*

The Case for Reparations to Africa: Britain Apology is Cheap*

Unpaid Debts: Reparation For Colonialism*

Fourteen Caribbean Nations Demand Reparation from Colonial Britain*

An Ancient Kingdom Demands Reparation from the Queen of England

At the World Economic Forum-Africa Germany Pitched a Dubious New G20 Corporate Strategy*

Chicago Pays $5.5mn in Reparations to 57 Black Men Tortured by Police Decades Ago*

Call for UK to Pay India Reparations for Colonial-era Damage*

Germany, where’s the Reparation for Greece?*

 

 

3-Billion-Year-Old ‘Lost Continent’ Lurking Under African Island*

3-Billion-Year-Old ‘Lost Continent’ Lurking Under African Island*

It’s official: A 3-billion-year-old “lost continent” lurks beneath the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius, new research confirms.

A fleck of iridescent zircon that is embedded in a piece of trachyte. The zircon is up to 3 billion years old, while the trachyte is about 6 million years old. The traces of zircon reveal that a lost continent is lurking beneath Mauritius. Credit: Wits University

 

By Tia Ghose

It’s official: A 3-billion-year-old “lost continent” lurks beneath the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius, new research confirms.

Sparkly, iridescent flecks of rocks known as zircons from Mauritius date back billions of years, to one of the earliest periods in Earth’s history, the researchers found. Other rocks on the island, by contrast, are no more than 9 million years old.

“The fact that we have found zircons of this age proves that there are much older crustal materials under Mauritius that could only have originated from a continent,” Lewis Ashwal, lead author of the new study and a geologist at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg in South Africa, said in a statement.

Earth’s crust is made up of two parts: the planet’s continents, which rise high above the oceans because they are composed of lighter rocks such as granite; and the ocean basins, which sink lower because they are made up of denser rocks such as basalt, according to a video about the new study.

Whereas the continental crust may be 4 billion years old, oceanic crust is much younger, and is continually being formed as molten rock spews through fissures in the ocean floor, called midocean ridges. [See Photos of the World’s Weirdest Geologic Formations]

The traditional thinking is that the island of Mauritius was formed by volcanic activity stemming from one of these midocean ridges, meaning older crust shouldn’t be there.

But the new study suggests that a tiny sliver of a primeval continent might have been left behind when the supercontinent Gondwana split up into Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica more than 200 million years ago. Then, the fiery birth of the island blanketed the primeval rock in layer after layer of cooling lava, building up the bulk of the island that is visible today, the researchers said.

“According to the new results, this breakup did not involve a simple splitting of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana, but rather a complex splintering took place, with fragments of continental crust of variable sizes left adrift within the evolving Indian Ocean basin,” Ashwal said.

The new findings buttress results from a 2013 study that also found traces of ancient zircons in beach sand on the relatively young island. However, critics contended that this zircon could have traveled there in trade winds or been carried along on someone’s shoes. In the new study, however, the zircons were found embedded in 6-million-year-old rock known as trachyte, ruling out the notion of wind-blown transfer, Ashwal said.

The findings were published Tuesday Jan. 31 in the journal Nature Communications.

Source*

Related Topics:

The 200,000-year-old ancient City in Africa*

A 200,000 Year-Old City in Southern Africa pre-Dates Sumer*

When the Sahara was Green*

Sudan: 35 Ancient Pyramids Discovered*

South Africa May be the Epicentre of a Geomagnetic Pole Reversal*

Rare ‘ring of fire’ Solar Eclipse puts on Spectacular Show over Africa*

World Bank Funds some of Africa’s most Notorious Land Grabs*

World Bank Funds some of Africa’s most Notorious Land Grabs*

The World Bank Group has indirectly financed some of Africa’s most notorious land grabs, according to a report by a group of international development watchdogs. The World Bank’s private-sector arm, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), is enabling and profiting from these projects by outsourcing its development funds to the financial sector.

The report, Unjust Enrichment: How the IFC Profits from Land Grabbing in Africa, was released today by Inclusive Development International, Bank Information Center, Accountability Counsel, Urgewald and the Oakland Institute.

“Pouring money into commercial banks that are driven only by profit motivations is not the way to foster sustainable development,” said Marc Ona Essangui, Executive Director of Brainforest and winner of the Goldman environmental prize in 2009.

“In Gabon, this development model has instead enabled a massive expansion of industrial palm oil, which threatens our food security and the ecological balance of Congo Basin’s ancient rainforests.”

“Tens of millions of hectares of land on the African continent have been grabbed by foreign investors in recent years. This has led to loss of life, land, and livelihoods for millions, and threatened the very survival of entire communities and indigenous groups,” commented Anuradha Mittal, Executive Director of the Oakland Institute.

“The World Bank must acknowledge that this is not development. It is not poverty reduction. These are investments for corporate profits that exploit and displace people.”

The report is based on a yearlong investigation conducted by Inclusive Development International, which found that IFC-supported commercial banks and private equity funds have financed projects across the world that have forcibly displaced hundreds of thousands of people and caused widespread deforestation and environmental damage.  In Africa, the investigation uncovered 11 projects backed by IFC clients that have transferred approximately 700,000 hectares of land to foreign investors.

The projects include agribusiness concessions in the Gambela region of Ethiopia that were cleared of their indigenous inhabitants during a massive forcible population transfer campaign in the area; oil palm plantations in Gabon that have destroyed 19,000 hectares of rainforest and infringed on the customary land rights of local communities; and a gold mine in Guinea that led to the violent forced eviction of 380 families.

“These projects are antithetical to the World Bank’s mission of fighting poverty through sustainable development,” said David Pred, Managing Director of Inclusive Development International.

“They also make a mockery of the IFC’s social and environmental Performance Standards, which are supposed to be the rules of the road for the private sector activities that the IFC’s intermediaries support.”

The report is the fourth of the investigative series Outsourcing Development: Lifting the Veil on the World Bank’s Lending Through Financial Intermediaries, which follows the trail of IFC money and examines at how it impacts communities around the world.

The Congo Basin is home to the second largest rain forest on earth

Inclusive Development International’s yearlong investigation uncovered 134 harmful or risky projects financed by 29 IFC financial-sector clients. These projects are found in 28 countries and on every continent except Antarctica. A database of the findings can be found here.

In response to the concerns raised in the Outsourcing Development investigation and by the IFC’s Compliance Advisor Ombudsman, IFC Executive Vice President Philippe Le Houérou recently acknowledged the need for the World Bank Group member to re-examine its work with financial institutions.  In a blog post from April 10, Le Houérou wrote that the IFC would make “some important additional improvements to the way we work,” by scaling back the IFC’s high-risk investments in financial institutions, increasing its oversight of financial intermediary clients and bringing more transparency to these investments, among other commitments.

The IFC has also exited investments in banks highlighted by the Outsourcing Development investigation, including ICICI and Kotak Mahindra in India and BDO Unibank in the Philippines.

“We welcome the IFC’s new commitments to encourage a more responsible banking system by increasing its oversight and capacity building of financial sector-clients moving forward,” said Pred. “However, rather than simply divest, we want to see the IFC work with its clients to redress the serious harms that communities have suffered as a result of the irresponsible investments that we have brought to light.”

“IFC’s collusion in land-grabbing in Africa is deeply shocking, so its pledge to reduce high risk lending to banks is welcome, said Kate Geary, Forest Campaign Manager for Bank Information Centre Europe.

“But how can we be sure when there is no disclosure of where over 90% of IFC’s money invested through third parties ends up? The IFC’s financial sector clients must come clean about projects they are financing so they can be held accountable to their commitments to invest responsibly.”

Financial-sector lending represents a dramatic shift in how the IFC does business. After decades of lending directly to companies and projects, the World Bank Group member now provides the bulk of its funds to for-profit financial institutions, which invest the money as they see fit, with little apparent oversight. Between 2011 and 2015, the IFC provided $40 billion to financial intermediaries such as commercial banks and private equity funds. Other development finance institutions have followed suit.

Unjust Enrichment:  How the IFC Profits from Land Grabbing in Africa is available at:

https://www.oaklandinstitute.org/unjust-enrichment-ifc-profits-land-grab…

The Outsourcing Development series is available at: http://www.inclusivedevelopment.net/outsourcing-development

A database of IFC Financial Intermediary sub-Investments with serious social, environmental and human rights risks and impacts is available at:

https://goo.gl/UZ90PI

Source*

Related Topics:

The U.S. Elite Troops Partner with African Forces but Pursue U.S. Aims*

French Terrorists Dispatched to Sub-Saharan Africa*

Hiding Africa’s Looted Funds and the Silence of Western Media*

TPP, TPPA Goes EPA in the Recolonization of Africa*

Corporate Landgrab Deprives Small Farmers Who Feed the World- with Less than a Quarter of all Farmland*

Rothschild’s Rio Tinto Signs $20bn African Iron Ore Deal*

Senegal Farmers Tell Transnational Corporations to get off their Land*

Recolonizing Africa: Consolidating African Oil Assets*

The Imperial Vultures to Gather for the U.S.-Africa Summit*

Half the Size of Europe ‘Grabbed’ from Africa!

Ethiopia: Removing 70,000 People for Land Grab!

Vulture Investors Playing Monopoly with Africa!

World Bank Declares itself Above the Law*

Honduran Farmers Sue World Bank for Lending Arms for ‘Profiting From Murder’*

The World Bank’s Identification for Development*

World Bank Aims to Hand over Seed Industry to Agribusiness*

Obama and Clinton brought slavery to Libya*

Obama and Clinton brought slavery to Libya*

By Margaret Kimberley

The deliberate destruction of Libya was a war crime by all standards of international law. That country was just one victim of the American plan to eliminate secular governments in the Middle East. Under the guise of a phony ‘responsibility to protect’, American propaganda gave an atrocity the appearance of a humanitarian act.

Nearly every day there is a new report of desperate migrants rescued at sea in the Mediterranean. Some are less fortunate and are among the estimated 12,000 who have died there in the last three years alone. Their point of embarkation is Libya, a nation now a haven for human traffickers because of President Barack Obama and his secretary of state, Hillary Clinton.

Their deliberate destruction of Libya was a war crime by all standards of international law. That country was just one victim of the American plan to eliminate secular governments in the Middle East. Under the guise of a phony “responsibility to protect” and with cover from organizations such as Human Rights Watch, American propaganda gave an atrocity the appearance of a humanitarian act. Now come reports from media and the International Organization for Migration that African migrants are being openly bought and sold in Libya. This practice would not be taking place if Muammar Gaddafi not been murdered by American backed jihadists in 2011.

Obama’s evil success in Libya set off an endless trail of disasters. Libya is a hot bed of ISIS activity along with Iraq and Syria. It is not a coincidence that all three countries were targets of American regime change. Even the American ambassador in Libya fell victim to his government’s machinations in Benghazi.

Obama and Clinton hoped to continue their victory in Syria, but president Assad was stronger than they anticipated. When the Russians proved to be fickle allies who were willing to push Assad under the proverbial bus, Obama and Clinton wouldn’t take yes for an answer. They insisted that Assad had to go and they didn’t care how many Syrians they killed or turned into refugees in the process. Now the bloodshed continues under a new administration.

European countries struggle to contend with the flow of people from Syria and Libya who would be in their homelands were it not for America’s designs on that part of the world. Yet the corporate media say nothing. They may report on the refugee crisis and the migrant crisis without ever stating what is easily provable, that the United States is entirely responsible for the suffering.

There can be no plan for reviving the peace movement that doesn’t include a reckoning of responsibility for the disasters that Obama and Clinton brought to the world.

“We came, we saw, he died,” is one of the more memorable Hillary Clinton statements, memorable for all the wrong reasons.

Obama knew better than to be so crass, but he privately called Libya a “shit show” as if he were a bystander and not the perpetrator.

While the corporate media make hay out of very dubious evidence of atrocities allegedly committed by the Syrian government, the atrocities caused directly by the American government go unmentioned. Or rather they are reported absent of any context of American responsibility.

Even press reports of slave trading in Libya follow the same proscribed language. They will say that Gaddafi was an autocrat and a dictator, but omit that the humanitarian disaster was carried out by the United States, NATO, and Gulf monarchs. The dismemberment of Libya is one of many crimes that are conveniently shoved down the memory hole.

Now we see the supreme and awful irony. America’s first black president is responsible for slavery taking place in a once prosperous African country and his role is covered up by people who once would have condemned his actions.

Black people defended Muammar Gaddafi if no one else did. American presidents made a show of castigating Gaddafi, calling him crazed, fanatical, dictatorial and mentally ill. Black Americans were unanimous in their support whenever he was attacked, whether militarily or even rhetorically. But that support ended when he fell under Obama’s cross hairs. Barack Obama’s ascendancy to the presidency was a curse on black America’s political heritage.

That curse is unlikely to be lifted anytime soon. There was never a great willingness to point out his wrong doing, and now that the despised Trump is president the selective amnesia grows worse.

The corporate media do not fulfill their most basic obligations. They repeat lies if they are told by people they decide to protect. They hide the truth if it is told by the people they decide to disappear from discourse and from history. But that dissembling should not silence people who put themselves in the anti-war camp. When they read or hear about refugees and migrants dying or being sold as slaves they must state loudly and clearly that Obama and Clinton are the villains in the story.

Source*

Related Topics:

Africa Mourns the Long Sojourner

“U.S. Destroyed Libya to re-colonize Africa”*

Being Profiled for Economic Slavery*

Slavery: The Anniversary of the Official Ending of a System that Bankrolled and Civilized Cameron’s British Empire*

Quarterback Sits in Protest of the Celebration of Slavery*

Nestlé’s Bid To Squash a Child Slavery Suit Rejected*

Israel, Organized Crime, White Slavery, and the Sex Trade*

Trauma and the Lineage of Illness*

Proof that “World Government” is Banker Tyranny*

No Masters, No Rulers – A World Without Statist Conditioning*

The Oldest Known Modern Man in Ethiopia*

The Oldest Known Modern Man in Ethiopia*

Depiction of what the ancient ‘Herto Man’ may have looked like. His skull dates to 160,000 years ago. (Bradshaw Foundation) Background.

 

The El Niño weather phenomenon of 1996-97 wrecked havoc on many parts of the world; however, it also enabled one team of scientists to make an incredible discovery. When the skies cleared and the floodwaters dried, a group of palaeontologists in Ethiopia’s Afar region unearthed three human skulls as well as numerous other human bone fragments. After years of reconstruction and analysis, the remains were dated to approximately 160,000 years. The so-called ‘Herto skulls’ were thus older than the closest competitors by tens of thousands of years. Some experts believe they deserve their own subspecies classification: Homo sapien idaltu.

The Afar Research Site: Home of the Herto Skulls

The team consisted of researchers from the University of California, Berkley, and from the Ethiopian Rift Valley Research Service. The state of Afar is located in the northeastern corner of Ethiopia and stretches 27,820 square miles (72,053 km). Yet, the area the paleontologists have for years been particularly interested in is called the Afar Triangle (or Afar Depression), a geological depression caused at the junction of three diverging tectonic plates: the Nubian, Somalian, and Arabian. It is one of the lowest places in Africa and frequently holds the title of the hottest place on Earth. It also has the world’s largest lava lake formed by the most continuously active volcano, Erta Ale. The region is home to the Afar people, considered to be “the toughest people in the world” (Onuh, 2016)

From this region, one of the earliest known hominin fossils was discovered in 1974: a female Australopithecus afarensis known affectionately as Lucy. And here, in 1997, the Herto team discovered the oldest Homo sapien remains.

Erta Ale is an active shield volcano located in the Afar Region of northeastern Ethiopia, within the Danakil Desert. (CC BY-SA 2.0) Remains such as the skulls known as the ‘Herto fossils’ were discovered here.

 

The Serendipitous Discovery of the Skulls

In 1996-97, El Niño caused punishing rains to fall throughout much of Eastern Africa. The deluge caused many of the semi-Nomadic Afar people, including those of the Herto village, to abandon the Depression for higher ground. The rains caused a good deal of soil to wash into the Awash River, exposing numerous fossils. As a result of the people and herds moving to higher ground, these newly unearthed bones were not trampled and remained undamaged waiting to be discovered.

“When the scientists returned 11 days later, it took them only minutes to find the skulls of two adults, probably male. Six days after that, Dr. Berhane Asfaw of Ethiopia’s Rift Valley Research Service found a third, the skull of a 6-or 7-year-old child, shattered into about 200 pieces. After years of painstaking cleaning, reassembly, and study, the team was confident enough to tell the world that it had found the earliest true Homo sapiens — older by at least 1,000 generations than anything previously discovered” (Lemonick and Dorfman, 2003).

Although the child’s skull appeared almost identical to modern human children skulls, the adults showed marked differences. “Each of the adult skulls was remarkably big. ‘We compared this with skulls of 6,000 modern humans, and still after that comparison not one was as big and robust as the Herto male,’ said Tim White, a University of California, Berkeley paleontologist and co-leader of the international team that found and studied the skulls. ‘These were very, very large robust people.’” (Joyce, 2003)

Nonetheless, the skulls are like modern humans in every feature. “The face is flat with prominent cheekbones, but without the protruding brow ridge of pre-human ancestors or Neanderthals. And the braincase is rounded, like a soccer ball, rather than the football shape of earlier human ancestors.” (Joyce, 2003) For this reason, the team proposed calling the remains a subspecies of humans Homo sapiens idaltu, ‘idaltu’ meaning ‘elder’ in Afar.

A Herto skull, Homo sapiens idaltu

 

Features of the Skulls

The similarity in features finally puts to rest the long-standing controversy over the origin of modern humans. While it is known that pre-human species left Africa and settled in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, for decades it was not clear how these pre-human species all managed to develop into the same Homo sapien species. The answer is now clear that modern humans also developed in Africa and also left (most likely due to climate change). The second wave of African humanoids interbred and/or overtook the pre-human species, as can be seen in the well-studied case of the Neanderthals (one of the species that left Africa in the first wave).

“What this discovery in Ethiopia shows is that the shared features of modern humans – our high-rounded brain case, small brow ridges — originated in Africa,” said Chris Stringer from the Museum of Natural History in London” (Joyce, 2003).

Comparison of Modern Human and Neanderthal skulls from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. (CC BY-SA 2.0)

 

A Post Mortem on the Ancient Skulls

Perhaps more interesting to the casual reader of paleo-discoveries was the treatment of the skulls immediately after their owners’ deaths 160,000 years ago. Each of the three intact skulls, as well as the (possibly) 10 skull fragments found at the Herto site, bore marks of deliberate tampering after death. Not in a cannibalistic way. Rather, the Herto fossils show the earliest known evidence of mortuary practices.

“Cut marks on the skulls indicate that the overlying skin, muscles, nerves and blood vessels were removed, probably with an obsidian flake. Then a stone tool was scraped back and forth, creating faint clusters of parallel lines. The modification of the child’s skull is even more dramatic. The lower jaw was detached, and soft tissues at the base of the head were cut away, leaving fine, deep cut marks. Portions of the skull were smoothed and polished.” (Lemonick and Dorfman, 2003)

Skull of the six to eight-year-old child, found in 1997, shows evidence of cut marks and polish after death. (CC BY-SA 3.0)

 

‘The cut marks aren’t a classic sign of cannibalism,’ White said while showing the skulls to a TIME reporter in Addis Ababa.

 ‘If you wanted to get at the brain in order to eat it, you’d just smash open the skull.’ Instead, he suspects, the scratches might be a form of decoration. As for the polished areas, he says, ‘we know they weren’t caused by the environment, because the marks go across the breaks between the recovered pieces. The child’s skull looks as though it has been fondled repeatedly.’

‘This,’ concludes White, ‘is the earliest evidence of hominids continuing to handle skulls long after the individual died.’” (Lemonick and Dorfman, 2003)

 

Source*

Related Topics:

A 200,000 Year-Old City in Southern Africa pre-Dates Sumer*

A Field View of Reality to Explain Human Interconnectedness*

Hidden Human History*

Human DNA Tied Mostly to Single Exodus from Africa Long Ago*

Reflections on the Idea of a Common Humanity*

The Cosmic Joke behind Human Genetics*

Secret Meeting at Harvard Discusses Synthetic Humans*

The Human Body Emits, Communicates with, and is Made from Light*

The Hidden History of the Human Race*

Humanity at the Crossroads: The Crisis in Spiritual Consciousness

DNA Study Finds Ice Age Europeans Predominantly Had Dark Complexions and Brown Eyes*

The Genocide of the Peoples of Europe*

Rwanda Indicts French Generals for 1994 Genocide*

Rwanda Indicts French Generals for 1994 Genocide*

A man stands by the rows of human skulls and bones that form a memorial to those who died in the red-brick church that was the scene of a massacre during the 1994 Rwandan genocide

 

By Thomas C. Mountain

Late in 2016, the Rwandan government indicted several senior French Army generals for crimes against humanity, including genocide for their role in the 1994 Rwandan holocaust.

The Rwandan case against the French generals is based on the French having instigated and trained the Interhamwe paramilitary Hutu militia that was responsible for most of the killings of the minority Tutsi tribe and its supporters. This most inconvenient of facts is admitted to by the French media that are still trying to shrug off blame for the French crimes in Rwanda and deny any “smoking gun” exists.

This latest in a long series of Rwandan government exposés of the French military and Foreign Ministry’s role in the 1994 mass murder (some 800,000 by most accounts) provides that very “smoking gun,” for the well documented French military role in the very existence of the Interhamwe death squads in undeniable.

Who is going to believe that after creating, training and paying the salaries of the leadership, the French had no idea the Interhamwe ethnic death squads were going to carry out what they were broadcasting so rabidly? It goes further, for the evidence shows the French were actually behind the mass murder in just another storm of massacre and mayhem that typifies neocolonial French Africa.

All one has to do is view the excellent three-part series on Al Jazeera, “The French African Connection,” to hear first-hand senior French Intelligence agents matter of factly describe coup d’états and mass murder they directed in the years before the Rwandan genocide throughout neocolonial French Africa. After watching the series, tell me you still don’t believe the French were capable of the crimes committed in Rwanda in 1994?

Earlier in 2016, news broke about the French role in suppressing the anti-neocolonial rebellion that broke out in Cameroon in the 1970s, where over 10,000 Cameroonian’s were murdered by the Cameroon Army directed by French officers. All to maintain French control of their former “colonies” and continue the super exploitation of African resources that is critical to maintaining the high standards of living the French people have come to expect.

The French military is still very active in enforcing neocolonialism in French Africa, with contingents and or training operations in Mali, Central African Republic, Congo, Djibouti and Cote d’Ivoire. France has been at the forefront in demanding military intervention in Burundi by the UN, offering military forces for a potential occupation. French neocolonialism remains a potent force of reaction in Africa today and recognizing the French role in the Rwandan genocide in 1994 can play a vital role in helping the world understand this thorn in the side of the African peoples fight for independence, social equality and justice. Rwanda indicting French generals for genocide is a good start.

Source*

Related Topics:

Britain’s Role in Rwanda’s 1994 Genocide*

Rwanda Wins Award for Forest Reclamation

French Presidential Favorite Macron sparks firestorm for Speaking the Truth about Colonization*

French Draft Resolution on Syria Reflects its Longing for its Colonial History in Africa*

French Terrorists Dispatched to Sub-Saharan Africa*

French Troops with U.K., U.S. Support Engaged In War on Libya*