Tag Archive | Bible

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Figs (Ficus Carica)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Figs (Ficus Carica)

By Hwaa Irfan 

Figs are a sweet, succulent fruit that has been valued from time immemorial both when fresh, and as a dried fruit. High in dietary fiber, figs make a good contribution towards weight loss. It was valued for its ornamental leaves during the Roman times, and was a staple food for the ancient Greeks who forbade the best fruit from being exported.

The fig is an extremely unusual plant that is neither a fruit nor a flower. What we know as the fruit completely encloses the flower. The flower is considered to be invisible as inside the fig are tiny flowers which never see light, yet completes the process of a flower, producing seeds that ripen. There is an opening or ostiole i.e. an eye, which remains unconnected to the tree, but allows the fruit to develop by allowing communication with its external environment. This in itself is symbolic as the leaves of which were given to hide the shame they innately felt before being placed on earth. 

Said Prophet Muhammed: “If I had to mention a fruit that descended from paradise I would say this is it, because the paradisiacal fruits do not have pits… eat from these fruits for they prevent hemorrhoids, piles and gout”(Al-Bukhari)

Known in English as figs, and teen in Arabic, the common fig is native to Persia, Asia Minor and Syria. As a member of the Urticaceae plant family, the fig tree can grow up to 12 ft. in warm, temperate climates, living to an old age. There are many varieties like the ficus sycamores, which grows into a large tree, and is common in Egypt and Syria. The variety in the U.S. were mainly imported from Europe (where it was introduced around the 16th century) from which cultivation in the U.S. took off The fig tree is harvested in July and August, with producing countries Spain, Malta, Greece, Southern France, and the top producing countries being Turkey, and then Egypt.

On the market “natural” figs are allowed to keep their natural shape, and are packed loosely. “Pulled” figs are for export in small boxes/drums, which is kneaded to make them supple. Bay leaves might be included to keep away insects. “Pressed” figs are closely packed.    

Chemical Properties

Many properties have been identified, but the full effect still remains unknown.

  • Triglycerides
  • cysteine endopeptodase
  • Flavanoids
  • Polyphenols
  • Triterpenoids
  • Coumarins
  • Arabinose
  • B-amyrins
  • B-Carotene
  • Glycosides
  • B-Setosterols (also present in the leaves
  • Xanthotoxol
  • Psoralen
  • Bergaptene (also present in the leaves)
  • Umbelliferone
  • Campesterol
  • Stigmasterol (also present in the leaves)
  • Fucosterol
  • Oleic acid (seeds)
  • Linoleic acid (seeds)
  • Palmitic acid (seeds)
  • Stearic acid (seeds)
  • Arachidic acid (seeds)
  • Pentosans (leaves)
  • Carotene (trace) (leaves)
  • Bergaptene (leaves)
  • Tyrosine (leaves)
  • Caoutchouc (tree sap)
  • Albumin (tree sap)
  • Cerin (tree sap)
  • Malic acid (tree sap)
  • Rennin (tree sap)
  • Proteolytic enzymes (tree sap)
  • Diatase (tree sap)
  • Esterase (tree sap)
  • Lipase (tree sap)
  • Catalase (tree sap)
  • Peroxidase (tree sap) 

Psoralen has been identified as an active agent against tumors, bacteria and viruses. The phytochemical, cysteine endopeptodase has been isolated from the fruit to produce a protein ficin, a protein digestant. Ficin has also been used to tenderize meat. The triterpenoids and coumarins have been identified as having anticancerous activity.  In Southern France, the bergaptene is extracted for the perfume industry as “fig leaf absolute” to produce a scent of the woodlands.

The therapeutic qualities include the following:

  • Demulcent
  • Emollient
  • Nutritive
  • Aperient
  • Antipyretic
  • Purgative

Figs have long been known for their mild laxative action as syrup of figs, and as such, one can phytochemical properties of figs included in along with senna in medicine, particularly syrups. In the British pharmacopoeia syrup of figs is recommended as a good laxative for children. As a demulcent, decoctions are made for the easing of catarrhal infections of the nose and throat. The potassium content helps to control blood pressure, which is beneficial to those who have a high salt diet, and/or a diet high in processed foods. In countries where fig leaves are a part of the diet, the leaves reduce insulin, which is handy for diabetics on insulin.  The triglycerides lowers the amount of fat circulating in the blood.

In folk medicine, the milk-like sap from a freshly broken stalk will remove warts, and the leaves have been made into a decoction for the relief of diabetes, and calcification of the kidneys and liver.

The ficus carica is prevalent in India where it is used in traditional medicine. The roots of the fig tree have been used to treat ringworms and leucoderma, whilst the fruits have been used for inflammations, and cases of paralysis. In ayurvedic medicine, it is known that eating the fruit cleans the mouth, and removed foul tastes from the mouth. It is considered a natural tonic to the body, strengthening the vitality of the body, and is used to rejuvenate the mother who has just given birth after a case of hard labor.

In Chinese medicine, the leaves .are used to cure hemorrhoids, for hypertension, and as an anticancerous agent while bergaptene is has been used to cure vitiligo, psoriasis, and alopecia.

Nutritional Content

  • Potassium
  • Calcium
  • ManganeseBeta Tocopherol
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Zinc
  • Copper
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin B6
  • Riboflavin
  • Niacin
  • Folate
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Choline
  • Omega-3 fatty acids
  • Omega-6 fatty acids 

Recipes

 It is preferable to buy figs fresh, a couple of days at the most before eating as fresh figs are higher in antioxidants (prevents cell degeneration). The smell of a fruit is always a good give away as to its freshness, and with figs there should be a gentle sweet fragrance. Once bought, they should not be kept in the refrigerator for more than two days in a manner that will prevent them from bruising, and covered to prevent them from drying. With dried figs, they can be kept for several months in a dark cool place. They require a lot of chewing which is the beginning of the digestive process, and from which one is more able to benefit from the nutrients present. Unfortunately, the commercialized processing of dried figs might mean they have been treated with sulphites as a preservative to lengthen their shelf life in the store. This presents a problem for asthmatics especially. Foods classified as organic will be sulphur free.

 It get the best out of figs nutritional speaking they should be eaten with the skin, which means coming across a soft pulpy, chewy, and crunchy (seeds) textures all at the same time. However, IN SOME Western countries the skin is peeled. Dried figs can be simmered in water for a few minutes to make them juicier or added to the morning cereal/porridge or added to yoghurt or a cold dessert. Fig jam is quite popular, and that can be made by using plump fresh figs.

–  ½ lb sugar

– ½ pint of water per pound of fruit

 … that makes the syrup, and then just add the figs, bring to the boil until thick. Add a stick of cinnamon before it boils to extract the preservatives, and remove after boiling! 

For other purposes, the fresh fig can be roasted using the flesh as an emollient in the form of a poultice to dental abscesses, they were used in the Bible that way. The tree sap was used in South America traditionally to do the washing up, and until recently was an ingredient in commercial detergents.

The milk-like sap from a freshly broken stalk will remove warts – some methods use the sap produced before the fruit is ripe. On application, the area around the wart will become inflamed, which is the beginning of the process of shriveling and falling off.

For coughs, asthma and bronchitis,  a pound of figs cut, addded to a quart of water, then brought to the boil, then allowed to simmer. Afterwards, place the content in a muslin cloth, and squeeze out the juice, then add to the juice 2 lemons.

In balance He gave us everything we needed, but as for what we want!

 Sources:

“Fig, Common”. http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/f/figcom12.html

“Figs  http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=24

Felter, H. W.  King’s American Dispensatory, U.S.1898.

Kadamus, J. “Encyclopedia of Medicinal Herbs“. Parker Publ, U.K. 1983.

Kalaskar, M.G. et la. “Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Investigation of Ficus Carica”. http://www.ethnoleaflets.com/leaflets/ficus.htm 

Morton, J. “Figs”. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/fig.html

Series:

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Lemons
Allah’s Medicine Chest: Garlic
Allah’s Medicine Chest: Oranges
Allah’s Medicine Chest: Almonds
Allah’s Medicine Chest: Shea Butter
Allah’s Medicine Chest: Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)
Allah’s Medicine Chest: Strawberries (Fragaria vesca)
Allah’s Medicine Chest: Dates (Phoenix dactylifera) 

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo)

Your Vitamins and Minerals

 

Islam is Not a Religion

The imagination can be a dangerous thing when left to the corruption of poisonous tongues. So much misperception, so much misunderstanding, and so much is killed to prove a point. All that is common is annihilated, because one fears to breathe. Instead we use words in a way that distorts the truth, and what is beautiful, what is full of life and giving is made barren. At all levels this pattern is repeated from the public to the personal…

Muslim Cordoba Going for a Song 

Muslim Cordoba Going for a Song

By Hwaa Irfan

It is more out of an attraction for the out of the ordinary that I find myself bemused by the auctioneer’s skill to sell lumber. Even more curious, when Christies of London, (the auctioneer house) aimed to sell these five 10th century wooden beams from the Great Mosque of Cordoba (The Mezquita) in Spain.

As someone who struggles with the onslaught of materialism and technology, the question that immediately comes to mind is who would sell (let alone keep) a set of wooden beams that are 11 centuries old for US$1.75 million (UPI), let alone something from a religion that seems a little too inconvenient to some. Then to add to it all, the sale was stopped by the Spanish authorities and the lawyer of the Cathedral of Cordoba. What is so important about those wooden beams to attract such attention?

Jonathan Wheeler, a lawyer, told Agence France Presse that the beams held “great cultural and religious importance” for Spain. Curious and more curious, considering it was in 2004, when a request to the Vatican by Spanish Muslims to pray in the cathedral was not open to dialogue on the idea. Muslims are not a part of the equation here, at least not on the surface, so what is all the fuss?

The Invasion

The wooden beams must have been some kind of structural support for what stands as the only monument left of the Muslim medieval past in Cordoba. Today’s Islamophobes would have us look at our past as an invasion into Europe territory, ignoring that there were dark-age “crusades” previous to the dawn of Islam in Europe. But when the Umayyad Emir Abd Al-Rahman was fleeing from Abbasid rule in Baghdad in the 8th century CE, there was no Muslim invasion on Spanish soil.

Emir Abd Al-Rahman was the only surviving member of his family. Being half Syrian and half Berber-Andalusian, the prince fled to live in exile in his mother’s country. Like all men before and since, Muslim outlanders and frontiersmen sought their equivalent of the “Wild West” in Spain since 711 CE (the historical date given for the invasion of Muslims) in seclusion. If there was an invasion in our sense of the word, how come it took 800 years for Europe to muster up an army? And how come such beautiful art was created and not destroyed as we see in Iraq under the American banners of “liberation”?

The Mezquita

It was not until 756 CE when Abd al-Rahman moved to Cordoba. Against the wishes of Baghdad, ‘Abd-ar Rahman sought to reestablish the Umayyad legacy with the building of the Great Mosque of Cordoba in 785 CE and much more. The original great Mosque of Cordoba was built on the strong geometrical principles of the square-circle on top of the place where the pagan Roman temple of Janus and the Christian Visigoth church of St. Vincent once stood.

To build the original mosque, it was not only finances that had to be mobilized, but also technical skills and craftsmanship. Even the Roman Emperor Constantine was solicited for a cargo of colored glass cubes and a master mosaicist. Old Roman columns (previously razed by the Visigoths) were reused in the building of the mosque. Having been improved and expanded upon five times, the eventual 23,400 square meter prayer hall and 500 columns are reflective of the size of the mosque, its place in the western Islamic empire and the growing Muslim ‘Ummah.

The forest of columns allowed sunlight through the hall, which had since been filled in by the builders of the cathedral inside the Mosque. With four entrances, the Gate of the Viziers (Bab Al-Wuzara), now called the Stephen Gate, stands as a memory to the important officials who would arrive in response to the call for prayer through this gate. In the Patio de los Naranjos (courtyard of the orange trees), which has survived to this day, Muslims would carry out their ablutions before entering the mosque.

For 300 hundred years, the great mosque had Christian worshippers; it was consecrated by King Ferdinand III when he conquered Cordoba. It wasn’t until the 16th century when the bishop of the cathedral decided to demolish the mosque in order to build a church on top of it. Sixty-three pillars were removed from the center of the mosque to allow for the cathedral’s structure.

Whereas the original mosque was built within the lifetime of ‘Abd-ar Rahman II (833-52 CE), it took over three centuries to complete the cathedral. Workers often dropped down their tools, not because they weren’t being paid, but because of frequent disputes that took place regarding building works spurred by a local attachment to the beauty of the mosque.

It was not until Roman Emperor Charles V gave a clear mandate in 16th century, when work on the cathedral progressed by consecrating the mosque as a Christian place of worship. When the emperor finally visited Cordoba, it was documented that he said, “Had I known what was here, I would never have dared touch the old structure. You have destroyed something that was unique in the world and added something one can see anywhere.”

In 1931, Allama Muhammad Iqbal prayed in the Great Mosque of Cordoba. In I980, Muslims were able to get permission to pray `Eid Al-Adha in the mosque from a local priest. In 2004, the Islamic Council of Spain made a formal request to the Vatican to pray in the mosque, but this was denied according to Archbishop Michael Fitzgerald, president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue.

The Legacy of Cordoba

The Great Mosque of Cordoba stands as a symbolic testament of Muslim Cordoba (or Qurtuba in Arabic) which once contained 250,000 buildings and 3,000 mosques, palaces, and baths. Cordoba was the birthplace of the Roman stoic Seneca, the Muslim philosopher Ibn Rushd (Averroes), and the Jewish physician and philosopher Maimonides (Abu ‘Imran Musa ibn Maymun ibn ‘Ubayd Allah).

Andalusia gave birth to others like Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Gerbert of Aurillac (955–1003 CE), who later became Pope Sylvester II, was sent to Catalunya to study mathematics, he benefited from close contact with Cordoba’s fountain of knowledge that contained over 400,000 books. In Europe, books were mainly kept in private collections and the Church had forbidden any investigation that was deemed to go against the Bible.
Cordoba’s fame for its knowledge of the sciences, arts, and commerce led to communication and dialogue between the Catholic Church and Muslim Cordoba. All the works of Aristotle, Archimedes, Apollonius, Euclid, Hippocrates, and Galen survived through Arabic translation into Latin to become valuable tools that led to the reanimation of civilization in Europe through the Renaissance. Through the medium of the Arabic language, Europe was reintroduced to part of its heritage.

Cordoba’s prosperity between the 9th and 10th centuries was nurtured by the introduction of irrigation systems designs brought from Damascus which assigned water to each cultivator in proportion to land size and Yemeni irrigation techniques were employed in the distribution of water over a fixed time period. The sahib al-saqiya (the person who was responsible for irrigation) managed the distribution of water that led to a cultivation of cherries, apples, pears, almonds, pomegranates, figs, dates, sugarcane, bananas, cotton, flax, and much more. Providing what seemed like exotic fruits and finery to Europe, economic reform was aided and abetted by access to international trade.

Spanish poetry, albeit originally based on Arabic models, evolved into a new form, its rhythm and rhyme came under the influence of Romanesque poetry. Under the patronage of the caliphate, literature flourished with scholars from the east emigrating to Spain. Grammar and philology came from Iraq, Aristotle’s philosophy was introduced and the medical standard was set by Galen’s books.

It was under the dictatorship of Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Amir when Cordoba fell, splintering into smaller states, namely Seville, Badajoz, Toledo, Saragossa, Albarrac’n, Valencia, Almer’a, and Granada which all bickered among themselves. Their disputes left them weak, vulnerable, and ripe for attack by ensuing armies from the Christian north and the impending Crusades.

A Symbol of Prosperity, Diversity, and Tolerance

On Cordoba, Earl Bertrand Russell, a philosopher and a recipient of the Nobel Prize for literature (1872-1970) wrote the following:

    “Throughout the Middle Ages, Jews had no part in the culture of Christian countries, and were too severely persecuted to be able to make contributions to civilization, beyond supplying capital for the building of cathedrals and such enterprises. It was only among the Mohammedans, at that period, that Jews were treated humanely, and were able to pursue philosophy and enlightened speculation. The Mohammedans were more civilized and more humane than the Christians. Christians persecuted Jews, especially at times of religious excitement; the Crusades were associated with appalling pogroms. In Mohammedan countries, on the contrary, Jews at most times were not in any way ill-treated. Especially in Moorish Spain they contributed to learning; Maimonides, who was born in Cordoba, is recorded by some as the source of much of Spinoza’s philosophy”.

The Christian Visigoths who ruled Spain prior to Muslim’s took control of Andalusia, made the following dictates on Jews in their code (constitution) as follows:

• Jews shall not celebrate the Passover according to their Custom.

• Jews shall not contract marriage according to their custom.

• Jews shall not perform the rite of circumcision.

• Jews shall not divide their food into clean and unclean according to their custom.

• No Jew shall subject a Christian to torture.

• No Jew shall testify against a Christian.

• The descendants of Jews may testify.

• No Jew shall circumcise a Christian slave

• Under no circumstances shall Christian slaves attach themselves to Jews, or be admitted into their sect.
• All Christians are forbidden to defend or protect a Jew, by either force or favor.

And much more…

Spain and Palestine had become the centers of Judaic literature development during a period that Jews referred to as “The Golden Age.” Even the Jewish Virtual Library acknowledges that Cordoba
was “the seat of Jewish learning, scholarship, and culture, gradually eclipsing the Babylonian academies of Sura and Pumbeditha.” Albeit, they attribute these facts to a Cordoban Jew. Jews were not second-class citizens, nor were they maltreated, rather, they participated in all levels of Cordoban society.
Not everyone accepts the “either/or” paradigm of history. One such person is Maria Rosa Menocal, philologist, professor of Spanish and Portuguese, and director of the Whitney Humanities Center at Yale University. Echoing Betrand Russell, Menocal illustrated:

    “Throughout medieval Europe, Arabic had a far more powerful impact on the transformation and shaping of culture than most narratives of our history reveal.”

In response to someone’s desire to live in a place “where the religions of the children of Abraham all tolerate each other and where, in the peace of that tolerance, and in the shade and fragrance of orange trees,” Menocal stated that such a place did exist and pointed out the following facts:

• The first generation of Muslims were immigrant Berbers from North Africa. Within a few generations, the majority of the Muslims, in part or in whole, were ethnically no different from those who remained Christian, such as the Celto-Iberians, Romans, and Visigoths.

• The unconverted Christians and Jews, called the dhimmis, of al-Andalus, were not very ethnically different from their brothers and neighbors who did convert; and soon enough they were not very different in other crucial ways, since Christians and Jews took to Arab culture. A ninth-century churchman of Cordoba once complained that young Christian men could barely write decent letters in Latin, yet they were so in love with Arabic poetry that they could recite it better than the Muslims themselves.

• Ibn Khaldun, a descendant of an old Andalusian family, was offered the restoration of his ancestral lands by Peter the Venerable if he would stay on as his vizier.

• In 1360, Samuel Halevi Abulafia had built for himself and his community a synagogue in the extravagant new Nasrid style. Writings on the wall were in Hebrew and Arabic (with verses from the Qur’an).

• Arabic poetry was central to the lives of all educated men in Andalus. This meant that the educated Jewish community came to know it, write it, and covet it. For hundreds of years, Hebrew was used only for liturgy. Pious Muslims could recite the Qur’an in God’s own sacred language, but for the Muslims, God did not hoard His language or keep it locked up in His temples, and so those same Muslims could also do a thousand different things in Arabic.

• New Hebrew poetry was born not out of “translation” in any conventional way, but out of that intimate understanding, gleaned directly from the use of Arabic as a religious and a secular poetic language, and born not in the comfort of Jewish society of Umayyad caliphate but rather in the exile of theTaifas.

• Maimonides, a Jew and a “Greek,” wrote “The Guide for the Perplexed in Arabic’.

• The translation movement from Arabic to Latin led to the translations of so much of the imperial culture of adab (the vast genre in Arabic traditionally translated as “belles lettres” but perhaps better understood as “humanistic study”) into the Castilian language at the end of the 13th century CE.

• The Abbot of Cluny was responsible for the translation of al-Khawarizmi’s great work on algebra (al-jabr). He was a key player in the introduction of the number system that would revolutionize computation in the west and make all modern calculations possible, using what we call Arabic numerals in English.

• In the courts of Languedoc, the jewelry boxes of the women who could afford them were engraved in Arabic. The style was introduced to Europe a form of luxury. Thus the first great songs of the vernaculars of Europe, those songs which Nietzsche composed defined the very essence of our culture, were sung in courts also graced with exquisitely carved ivory boxes, perfectly executed and engraved astrolabes, and of course new musical instruments upon which love songs were sung. And they were all part of a very Arabic world.

It shouldn’t be ironic that a seminar entitled Peace and Human Rights in Europe and the Middle East should take place in Cordoba. In Ken Coates’ summary of the goals of the seminar he wrote:

    “All the known works of Aristotle had survived in the Arabic language, but not in Europe, so that Cordoba could be said to have provided a vital link not only between the monotheistic faiths, but also between the ancient world and the dawning of modern times.”

The Beginning or the End?

I may not have found out who kept the five wooden beams in their barn or why; what the importance of the five wooden beams that led Christies of London to believe that they could be sold for US$1.75 million; or why the Catholic Church of Cordoba deemed them to be of such importance that they should not be sold, but a least, here, the beams served to remind us that Islam was brought to mankind as a mercy and that we as Muslims have helped to shape this world. For those of us who want a more harmonious life, this cannot be done in seclusion, with intolerance, or by being passive or blind to the 360 degrees that is Islam.

Cordoba

Shrine of the lovers of art! Visible power of the Faith!
Sacred as Mecca you made, once, Andalusia’s soil.
If there is under these skies loveliness equal to yours,
Only in Muslim hearts, nowhere else can it be.
Ah, those proud cavaliers, champions Arabia sent forth
Pledged to the splendid Way, knights of the truth and the creed!
Through their empire a strange secret was understood:
Friends of mankind hold sway not to command but to serve.
Europe and Asia from them gathered instruction: the West
Lay in darkness, and their wisdom discovered the path.
Even to-day in its breeze fragrance of Yemen still floats,
Even to-day in its songs echoes live on of Hejaz.

(from Menocal. M. R. ” The Literature of Al-Andalus.”)

Sources:
AFP. ” Controversial London Sale of Spanish Mosque Beams Withdrawn ‘

Coates, Ken. ” The Cordoba Seminar on Peace and Human Rights in Europe and the Middle East”

Gedal, Najib. ” The Great Mosque of Cordoba: A Geometrical Analysis.”

Guichard,P. ” Cordoba the Magnificent.”

Kubisch,N. ” The Great Mosque of Cordoba.”

Menocal. M. R. ” Culture in the Time of Tolerance.”

Menocal. M. R. ” The Culture of Translation.”

Menocal. M. R. ” The Literature of Al-Andalus.”

Phyun5. ” The Middle Ages.”

Scott, S.P. “The Visigoth Code”

Sills, Ben. ” Cathedral May See Return of Muslims .” Apr. 19, 2004.

United Press International (UPI). ” Rare Mosque Beams Pulled from Auction .” Apr. 4, 2006.

Wikipedia ” Cordoba, Spain ”

Wikipedia ” Mezquita”
http://mdarik.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1158658413798&pagename=Zone-English-ArtCulture%2FACELayout

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The Tresses of Forgetfulness. 

Veiling Through Time
The Tresses of Forgetfulness.

By Hwaa Irfan

A time remembered is a period of historical films on British history when to see a woman veiled was quite normal. To surf on the ‘net, one could be led to believe that the veil begins and starts with Islam or as a wedding dress accessory. The event of banning the veil in France has only served to show how much is based a gut reaction so deep that there is a past to it. Another misnomer is the underlying reason President Chirac banned all religious symbols of expression form all religions as a desperate man trying to quell the growing uncontrollable tide of anti-Semitism in France. The last time one looked, Jews indigenous to the Middle East were of the same Semite race as those they feel superior to – the Palestinians (both Christian and Muslims)! As such, the growing attacks against Jews spreading across Europe in Britain, Germany, Italy and Belgium etc as been engineered to turn against Muslims. This has symbolized how far humanity has to go before it can become humane where men women and children have taken to the streets in the 20th century to march for their individual rights. The suffragettes once fought for women’s rights that only released women into a slavery to the body beautiful against the dictates of a Christian Europe that incarcerated women to a life of servitude in mind and body when Islam had given Muslim women their rights.

This dictate, descends from the Christian Bible which states in 1Corinthians II:

4 Any man who prays or prophesies with his head covered brings shame upon his head.

5 But any woman who prays or prophesies with her head unveiled brings shame upon her head, for it is one and the same thing as if she had had her head shaved.

6 For if a woman does not have her head veiled, she may as well have her hair cut off. But if it is shameful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, then she should wear a veil.

7 A man, on the other hand, should not cover his head, because he is the image and glory of God, but woman is the glory of man.

8 For man did not come from woman, but woman from man;

9 nor was man created for woman, but woman for man;”

Further clarification is given in 1 Timothy II 8-9 of the Gospels:

10 For this I was appointed preacher and apostle (I am speaking the truth, I am not lying), teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth.

11 It is my wish, then, that in every place the men should pray, lifting up holy hands, without anger or argument.

12 Similarly, (too,) women should adorn themselves with proper conduct, with modesty and self-control, not with braided hairstyles and gold ornaments, or pearls, or expensive clothes,

13 but rather, as befits women who profess reverence for God, with good deeds.

14 A woman must receive instruction silently and under complete control.

15 I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man.

16 She must be quiet.”

Hence it is written early in the codes of Christianity that women should. Far from ending in the past, the veil was used to subjugate women in Christianity. It was the first Latin theologian of the 2nd and 3RD century Quinus Septimus Florens Tertullianus who with fervor wrote on the veiling of women:

    “. For that custom which belies virgins while it exhibits them, would never have been approved by ant except by some men who must have been similar in character to the virgins themselves. Such eyes will wish that a virgin be seen as has the virgin who shall wish to be seen. The same kinds of eyes reciprocally crave after each other. Seeing and being belong to the self-same lust…

    The matter that has been left to choice, for each virgin to veil herself with, as she might have chosen, just as (she had equal liberty)… But when the power of discerning began to advance, so that the license granted to either fashion was becoming the mean whereby the indication of the better part emerged; immediately the great adversary of good things and much more of good institutions set to his own work…

    Every public exposure of an honorable virgin is (to her0 a suffering of rape: and yet the suffering of carnal violence is the less evil, because it comes of natural office. But when the very spirit itself is violated in a virgin by the abstracting of her covering, she has learnt to lose what she what she used to keep….”

The Western patriarchal view of women can be embodied as Tertullian wrote:

    “ It is not permitted to a woman to speak in the church; but neither (is it permitted her), to teach, not to baptize, not to office”

    “It remains likewise that we turn to (the virgins) themselves, to induce them to accept these (suggestions) the more willingly… But we admonish you, too women of the second (degree of) modesty, who have fallen into wedlock, not to outgrow so far the discipline of the veil, not even in a moment of an hour, as, because you cannot refuse it, to take some other means to nullify it, by going neither covered nor bare. … Arabia’s heathen females will be your judges, who cover not only the head, but the face also, so entirely, that they are content, with one eye free, to enjoy rather half the light than to prostitute the entire face. A female would rather see than be seen”.

Enveloped in the Western perception of women is the ‘Fall of Eve’ which has shaped Western societal norms throughout the centuries. Christian scholar Leland Haines spells it out: It was only the wealthy that one can find explored their sense of sexuality outside of social mores. “Not to wear the veiling implies freedom from submission to man.

Medieval Era

It was the noble women who wore covered their hair with bonnets and veils especially after the church issued an edict that women should keep their hair covered.

Middle Ages

A lot of Western women’s frustration over their gender can be attributed down to the church as opposed to Christianity and the general view of women in society. During this period, it was single, divorced and noblewomen that had the right to possess property the right to which was lost once they married. Women could trade, save money and were legally liable until then. Under French ‘Salic Law’ women could inherit land in the 6th & 7th century as long as there were no male relatives. It was a combination of theologies of Aristotle and Augustus that culminated in Thomas the Aquinas Head of the English Church who firmly established in this period the belief that women’s role was solely to marry, procreate and raise children. Any intellectual pursuit was the prerogative of men. Women were inferior and the causes of evil. It was this that increased the flow of women to become nuns where they could have some degree of control over their lives.

Elizabethan Period

The ‘snood’ that arose out of the Tudor period became the rage with fashion trendsetter of the day, Queen Elizabeth. Crocheted or beaded, ‘snoods kept the hair out of the way and clean. Still popular today.

Victorian Period

Often deemed the most oppressive period in Western women’s history, It was during the middle of the 19th century that the hair started to hang loose at the nape, with curls, crimps and all kinds of tantalizing hairstyles when the agricultural revolution had offered more food than before, and the Industrial Revolution offered new jobs, new towns, new societies, more and varied commodities. Queen Victoria’s introduction of the wedding dress gave a new life to the veil. It has set a trend that has become a dream for most girls.

19th Century
With major renovations taking place in Paris, doctors were strongly recommending that women wore veiled bonnets to protect themselves from dust and airborne diseases. In fact it was fashionable to the extent that women viewed the veil as a symbol of high-class and respectability. Art historian Dr. Marni Kessler as a male had contradictory views on the subject but stated that the veil provided a barrier between the woman and the city “She was not blinded by the veil, but nevertheless held back, protected and shielded from modern life”.

Hence, women were appendages of men with no rights of there own as embodied in Christian teachings and were the property of men. Is it embedded somewhere in their trace memory every time they look at a veiled Muslim woman. Can it not be seen that unlike certain Christian teachings of old, that the veil in Islam is not about subjugation to men, but about not being subjugated to the body. Can it not be seen that the rights of women in Islam, is written into Islam and is not an influence from elsewhere?

Western women were void of any sought of rights until the 19th century. That past was to be broken with the advent of industrialization that only respects profit not rights. Through the vehicle of the Suffragette movement, became free from one form of slavery into the slavery of the body. Believing to be free, Western women were no longer appendages of men. The fast sweeping changes was too much for the likes of some. The free Church rose, part of which is he conservative Christian group the Amish, who separated themselves from this world they wished not to belong to and followed strict codes against military involvement and the older members are against the use of electricity the veil was a part of the Amish wife’s daily wear. Some communities still hold onto their traditions

For many women today, the hair has become all too important although the essence of femininity has been associated with the hair. Yet, in the West, up until the twentieth century, hairstyling was limited to the upper classes in the West. We never think of how much we adulterate hair with many harsh chemicals found in modern day shampoos and permanent dyes. Whatever the tradition, in general, the hair when styled was confined by shaving, cutting, the hairstyle itself and veiling except for those where every ploy was used to entice the men as long holds much provocation to men. Otherwise it was considered unhygienic and impractical to have the hair loose.

Pt.II

Hair Crazy

To show how obsessed with visual appeal we have become, a poll by Yankelovich Partners in 2001 showed that 69% of Americans felt that clothing, hair and make-up were the most important determining factors in deciding on whether or not one got a job and 67% said that ones appearance affects whether one gets a new challenge, responsibility or opportunity and can you believe that 78% of Americans believed that clothes, hair and make-up affects the ability to do the job. However, one should bear in mind that Yankelovich were sponsored by the Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association to provide this survey!

The Process of Making Something Positive, Negative.

It is almost as if, those that seize the opportunity to attack Islam through the issue of women or use Muslim women to unload what is still imbedded in their psyche from an oppressive past have associated the Islamic veil as a tool of male chauvinism under the guise of ‘Islamic fundamentalism’ yet have no working alternative to put in its place!. Through the old game of ‘labeling’ in the church.

    “The technique of labeling is used to discount a person who opposes the beliefs of a religious addict. Labeling attempts to dehumanize persons so that dismissing them or their opinions is much easier. Choosing not to address someone individually who has doubted the toxic faith, the religious addict places a blanket negative label on all who would disagree with his or her personal habits. Rather than state that John Smith has made a negative statement, the addict proclaims that there are ‘detractors’, ‘traitors’ or ‘malcontents’ who would destroy the ministry or organization. The label becomes a rallying point under which the other followers can be moved to action to squelch a revolt”!

So as such, the rallying cry has been made and we arise our voices, the question is not who, but when will there be success in de-robing the Muslim woman? This is the idea after all, to make the Muslim woman feel as if she is ancient and therefore making her react emotionally to what is going on and unwittingly undo all that supports the fabric and well-being of a Muslim society – the family. The fairy-tale of Rapunzel was only enchanting to many because of the length of her hair which her knight in shining armor used to climb his way into her heart. A people have been made to feel inferior because of their hair:

“We are still enslaved in our thinking.
Society has molded us in our speaking.
I have a problem with the word nappy because it is not being associated with our true identity as being happy.
Why do I have to have a chemical on any of my hair.
I don’t want to conform to any standard of theirs.
They, are those who impose their repressed feelings on the impressionable youth.
Who are just learning to love themselves inside and out.
Youth who want only to fit in with a set standard of beauty, without a doubt.
We as a people need to come together on this.
Most are living happily because ignorance is bliss.
They don’t know that saying “good hair” is as degrading as using the N-word as a term of endearment.
By changing our thinking, we can not only come out of darkness mentally but come out of our concealment!” –

Nappy Hair.com

Many distance themselves from others because of the loss of hair in illness. One teenager wrote:

    “Her hair Her hair was like an ocean with curls and curls and waves. There were red streaks, in her long brown hair; her eyes were emeralds, her skin a golden bronze. She is my best friend. I would do anything to have her hair – the way it fell Against her shoulder, Like a golden maple frame around a beautiful picture.
    “What’s chemo?” I asked as Mom pulled me aside. I hope she doesn’t die. I hope she can still have her hair. But; she can’t, and it fell out She had Hodgkins disease And she lost her hair. Seeing her in the hospital with clearly painful tubes tied to her chest with massive grey machines attached to her – without her hair. It was hard to look. To see her hurting so badly, made me hurt too, So I cut my hair. by Ashley Nestor, New City, NY”

(Ashley from teenink.com).

The High Cost of Sexploitation

We are in denial I think as to what impact the hair has in determining who we not because it actually does, but for some deeper meaning, it has an illogical affect on human-beings that can make one like, hate, resent, bully, desire and reject a person an for no other reason. Every physical feature on a woman’s body has to have a visual appeal that only some non-Western women try to not emulate. That visual appeal has become packaged as sex – sex as a commodity. Beautiful women have become visually available to sell the unsaleable. Sexploitation invites men to poses with their eye what they cannot possess with their hands. Playing on the desires of men, heightening their sensibilities to a point whereby many find it difficult to not take what they have been ‘invited’ to take. The illusion of women’s rights in the West have been at the cost of men’s rights only serving to enslave both genders to the unalienable right ‘to have’. The other term for it is ‘consumerism’ -the same consumerism that is the rock-bed of Western industrialization, colonialism and globalization that has led to all forms of violence occurring in civil society. The RAINN Organization that provide the ‘National Sexual Assault Hotline’ in the U.S. state: “Every two minutes, somewhere in America, someone is sexually assaulted”. There were 247,730 victims of rape in 2002, 44,000 of rape victims were under 18 years of age, 93% of juvenile sexual assault victims knew their attackers, 34% were family members and only 7% of the attackers were strangers. This only serves to show how even the individual concept of family is being eroded.

When women choose to neglect their rights as recognized under Islam, they also become negligent of the possible consequences not only to herself, but to her family and society as a whole. The veil is a protection of those rights which only a few non-Westerners are beginning to wake-up to. Transforming from the common Western perception of veiled Muslim women, that was shaped by their own past, Production Coordinator, Mary Walker for the BBC2 series ‘Living in Islam’ said in ‘ Impact Magazine’:

Dissolving a Myth

    “To me the veil symbolized the oppression of women, making them invisible, anonymous and voiceless, and the cause of this oppression lay in the will to perpetuate the family and maintain a patriarchal framework – the very basis of an Islamic Society. I thought women were entirely submerged by divine justification of their role as wife and mother… ‘Living in Islam’ was filmed over two years in 19 different countries and on location I was a lone female in an otherwise male team… The first Muslim woman I met in Mali was far removed from my preconception about the Muslim female. She was the wife of a sheikh dedicated to converting pagan villagers to Islam. A sophisticated, well-educated woman, previously married to a diplomat, she had renounced a Western lifestyle for a life in purdah… The emancipated woman in the West faces the conflict between confirmation of her femininity and the privileges that she associates with it, and repudiation of the confines of her female role and all the limitations that men want her to assume. From where I stood, this woman had transformed those limitations into privileges… On my next trip to northern Nigeria, I met two more women who would alter my views even further.. And once again they had rejected the Western lifestyle which I considered so superior to Islam in its treatment of women… The women talked and in their answers I saw seeds of my own re-evaluations. They argued that the veil signified their rejection of an unacceptable system of values which debased women while Islam elevated women to a position of honor and respect.

    “It is not liberation where you say women should go naked” Just as to us the veil represents Muslim oppression, to them miniskirts and plunging necklines represent oppression. They said that men are cheating women in the West. They let us believe we’re liberated, but enslave us to the male gaze…”

The tresses of forgetfulness is what fell with an enchanting dance
To grace her body in the glowing sun.

Those tresses caught not his eye, but his senses and could not,

Would not rise above that trance

His imagination unfolded passions within from where he cared not

For all he saw in that moment

Was a need to fulfill what lied within with what he saw –

Who she was

Did not matter, neither did her honor.

Enraged by her rejection he triumphed in that hour.

First Written 01/19/04

Sources:

Ashley, N. “Her Hair”. 12/22/03. http://www.teenink.com/Past/1999/10604.html

Barker, Katrina. “Symposium Looks at Costume Veil History”. 2. 12/21/03. http://newsnet.byu.edu/textonly/story.cfm/46860

Ccel.org. “Ante-Nicene Fathers: On the Veiling of Virgins”. 14. 12/21/03.http://www.ccel.org/fathers2?ANF-04/anf04-09.htm

Cyculture.net. “Lefkara Lace Designs”. 4. 12/20/03. http://www.cyculture.net/lefkara/html/designs.html

Eliznik.org.uk. “Womens’ Headwear”. 2. 12/2/03.
http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaPortul/w_headwear.htm

Haines, Leland. M. “The Christian Veiling”. 16. http://www.bibleviews.com/Veil.html

Headcoverings.com.. “Ladies Coverings Online Catalog”. 8. 12/07/03.
http://headcoverings.com/CoveringsOrder1Veils.htm

Nappyhair.com. “Napptural Poetry: Poems of Happiness”. http://www.nappyhair.com/articles/nappy_poetry.htm

RAINN.org. “RAINN Statistics”. 4. 01/13/04. http://www.rainn.org/statisitcs.html

Spirtualabuse.org. “Labeling”. 3 12/20/03. http://www.spiritualabuse.org/hair/labels.html

Usm.maine.edu. “Women in the Middle Ages”. 3. 12/20/03. http://www.usm.maine.edu/~flc/emily.htm

Womenwork.org. “Work Your Image: The Importance of Appearance on the Job” 12/23/01. 2. 12/20/03. http://www.womenwork.org/pdfresources/wyisurveyreport.pdf

New American Bible. “1 Corinthians II”.
http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/1corinthians/1corinthians11.htm

New American Bible. “1 Timothy II”. http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/1timothy/1timothy2.htm

The Great Flood & Noah’s Ark

By Hwaa Irfan

Well it seems Prophet Nuh/Noah’s Ark is back in the lime light again, with Chinese and Turkish evangelical archaeologists (wow what a combination of identities) digging around the one location where seems guaranteed to find it! Discovered 4,000 meters up the Turkish Mount Ararat, the finding of a wooden structure with compartments has been carbon-dated to 4, 800 years old – for the archaeologists, this is about the time when the great flood took place. The archaeological team are from the Noah’s Ark Ministries International based in Hong Kong.

Well let’s take a look back on a piece I wrote in September 2002!

The Great Flood and Noah’s Ark

Taking place in all continents currently, floods have always been a part of human existence. Seasonal floods increase soil fertility bringing nutrients and gave birth to the agricultural revolution, as well as the first permanent settlements on the riverbanks of Africa and Asia. However these is one flood that continues to intrigue soem adventurers and scientists alike.

Recorded history began approximately 3,00 years ago. The Qur’an was written in the 7th century A.D., 3,000 years after the Biblical scholars interpretations date Noah’s Ark landing in 2,350 B.C. The story of the Great Flood has passed on orally from generation to generation in 27 countries.

{And We perpetuated to him (praise) among later generations} (As-Saffat 37: 78)

Local History Revealed

Common to all stories are the torrential rains and walls of destructive water, rather descriptive of many tsunamis, bursting into valleys destroying everything on route. The most similar account to the Bible and the Qur’an is from Mesopotamia and China.

In Hawaii, Prophet Nuh was “Nu-u”, and in China “Nu-wah (Al-Hud 11: 25). All stories concur that The Flood came when the world had reached a dangerous point requiring the need to rid the world of evil.

Recent findings indicate that The Flood was indeed universal. Last year, explorer Robert Ballard found evidence that The Flood inundated the Black Sea in N. Turkey approximately 5,500 years B.C. with a local account of Prophet Nuh. Archaeological evidence confirms the same for the Tigris-Euphrates region. Other evidence revealed by sonar technology include the unusual formation of 1,900 – 2500 geometric blocks and crests in the deep waters of Cuba that remain unexplained. The oral history of Mayans and the native Yucatans of S. America speak of their ancestors vanishing beneath the sea. Similar structures have been found on the corresponding S. America coastline. Off the coast of S. India, local oral history refers to seven temples, six of which were swallowed by the sea. The seventh remains on the shores of Tamil Nadu. Local fishermen point to the location of the ruins consisting of foundation walls, broken pillars, steps and scattered gigantic blocks.

How Likely?

Many deem it impossible for our environment to create enough water to submerge even the highest mountain let alone survival under such conditions.

{And the heavens We raised it high with power, and most surely We are the makers of things ample. And the earth, We have made it a wide extent: how well We have then spread (it) out} (Az-Zariat 51: 47 – 48).

Scientists have indeed shown that two hundred million cubic miles of water is stored beneath the ocean’s floor. Biblical and Qur’anic accounts tell of torrential rains that began The Flood. Followed by the opening of the earth, it is believed the speed at which this volume of water was released, caused the separation of the continents into east and west triggered by a polar magnetic shift. Mountains submerged in water would explain the fish and animal fossils found in every mountainous region.

The Search…

The search for the location of Noh’s Ark is meant to be the final point for those who need it. The Biblical reference for the final resting-place of the Ark is cited as Mount Ararat. The CIA state Mount Ararat in Turkey as the “legendary landing place of Noah’s Ark.

“Ararat” comes from the Sumerian “Arrata”. They referred to The Flood in their poems as the place of rebirth after the deluge that fell upon Mesopotamia and “The Fertile Crescent”. However, Mount Ararat is a mountain range extending from the Armenian plateau to S. Kurdistan. To add to the intrigue, there is also a mountain called Mount Ararat. Mount Ararat consists of two peaks, Big and Little Ararat. Big Ararat is an inactive volcano 17,020 feet high. The peak is permanently snow-capped and covered in clouds and is the main source of headwaters of one of the divine waters in Islam, the Euphrates.

{And it was said. O earth, swallow down your water, and O cloud, clear way, and the water was made to abate and the affair was decided, and the ark rested on the Judi, and it was said: Away with the unjust people} (Al Hud 11: 44).

There is a Mount Judi in S. Arabia and was the name of the high ridge on Mount Ararat for 200 years. The Mount Judi referred to here is 200 miles south of Mount Ararat. In view are the Iraqi and Syrian borders. The River Tigris flows 25 miles from the base.

Ancient references call it “Cudi Dagh”, “Mount Quardi”, “Gordyene Mountains”, “Karduchian Mountains”, mountains of the Kurds, and “Mount Nipur”. Not identified on modern maps, it is 7,000 feet high. Nestorian Christians built monasteries on Mount Judi, and in 766A.D., Muslims built a mosque there.

Explorer Gertrude Bell in 1910 reported a stone structure in the sahpe of a ship at the summit that was locally known as “Sefinet Nabi Nuh” – “The Ship of Noah”. Every September 14th, Christians, Jews, Muslims, and Yezidis gathered to commemorate Noah’s sacrifice. Mount Judi was also once called Mount Ararat.

The Bible states the measurement of the Ark as 200 cubits x 50 x 30. The Babylonian cubit is equal to 19.8 ̋. The Egyptian short cubit is 17.6 ̋, and the longer 20.65 ̋. The Hebrew cubit is 17.5 ̋, and 20.4 ̋, whilst the American Biblical cubit is 18 ̋, which would make The Ark 450 ̒x 75 ̒x45 ̒ with 3 decks.

The search for Noah’s Ark has remain unabated since the 1950’s despite the strong possibility that The Ark has disintegrated with time or has moved location due to elemental forces. Renewed attempts to locate transpired from the CIA collection of satellite images of Mount Ararat. A top CIA official, George Carver at a Florida gathering stated:

    “… that there were clear indications that there was something up on Mount Ararat which was rather strange”.

For 20 years U.S. reconnaissance had routinely photographed what has been termed as the “Ararat Anomaly”. The intrigue was so great that it led to a CIA study by the National Photographic Interpretation Center in the 1970’s. The U-2 photographs were released, but the high-resolution KH-9 spy satellite images were not. Archeologist, Vendyl Jones, whose adventures gave life to the cinema character Indiana Jones, said it was “between maybe and probably” that they found Noah’s Ark. Many claims have been made.
The Turkish government in 1987 declared the site a national park and began work on a modern highway leading to “Nuh un Gemisi” – Noah’s Ark. In 1994, a claim was made, with The Ark located 32km from Mount Ararat, on the Turkish-Iranian border. Being in a politically sensitive area, Mount Ararat was declared a military zone. This had slowed down any further exploration, but in 2000, Robert Ballard’s team sponsored by the National Geographic Society identified a wooden structure off the coast of N. Turkey, which was submerged between 2 ancient riverbeds.

    “It consists of a single building with a hewn beam and wooden branches that formed the walls and roof of a structure most likely like a house. We have also found and photographed stone tools, possibly a chisel or an axe, and ceramic storage vessels, all untouched since the flooding of the Black Sea” said Ballard.

Using remotely operated vehicles, Ballard’s team identified a rectangular feature 12 meters x 4. Situated in deep oxygen-free waters it seemed well preserved. They used carbon-dating and samples from shells and sediment to estimate a time period of 7,500B.C. They received permission from the Turkish government to remove samples of wood for more accurate dating.

In 2002, the Turkish government denied all foreigners access to Mount Ararat due to the political nature of the borders it was said.

Referring to Robert Ballard’s discovery, expedition archaeologist Frederik Hiebert stated:

    “This is a major discovery that will rewrite the history of civilizations in this key area between Europe, Asia and the Middle East”

The significance then surely begs the question as to the development of civilization before The Flood. Have we done it all before, and if so are we only repeating our past mistakes?

{Do you then see of them one remaining? And Firon and those before him and the overthrown cities continuously committed sins. And they disobeyed the Apostle of their Lord, so He punished them with a vehement punishment. Surely We bore you up in the ship when the water rose high. So that We may make it a reminder to you, and that the retaining ear might retain it} (Al Haqqah 69: 8 – 12).

Whether The Ark exists or has been discovered, the frequency of reference to The Flood, and it’s importance in the Qur’an serves to remind us. We have yet to learn the interdependence of all life including humans regardless of race, religion, gender, or status depriving no one and the duty of everyone to uphold!

Sources:
AFP. Noah’s Ark Remains Found?” Accessed 04-27-10. http://www.straitstimes.com/BreakingNews/TechandScience/Story/STIStory_519658.html

C.I.A.gov “Turkey” Accessed 07-09-02. http:///www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/tu.html
Boyle, A. “Noah’s Ark Found? Not So Fast”. Accessed 04-27-10. http://cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com/archive/2010/04/27/2280442.aspx?GT1=43001

Crouse, B. “Noah’s Ark: It’s Final Berth”. Accessed 07-03-02. http:// http://www.noahsarksearch.com//noah.htm
Handwerk, B. “News Finds Worldwide Support Flood Myths” Accessed 05-30-02. http://news.nationalgeopgrahic.com/news/602.05/0520020528_sunkencities.html

Krowse, L. “Traces of Ancient Structure Found 95 Meters Below Black Sea”. Ngnews.com. Accessed 09-30-02. http://www.rense.com.general14/blacksea.htm

Siegle, M. “World News and Prophecy”. United Church of God. 3:2(2000) 8 -12. Accessed 07-09-02 http://www.ucg/articles/wnp0002.htm#3

NASA. Earth Observatory – “Natural Hazards: Floods”. Accessed 07-10-02. http://64.4.30/250/cgi-bin/linkrd?Lang=EN&lah=a9e2bfd94967c97d79e433d720dab…

Nazaryan, G. “Armenia Cradle of Civilization Roots of Tree of Nations in Mountains of Armenia” Accessed 07-09-02. http://www.armeniahighland.com/cradle/chronicle110.html

News World Communications Inc. “Anomaly or Noah’s Ark”. Accessed 07-01-02. http://www.noahsarksearch.com/anomaly.htm

Wroe, M. “The Qur’an and Noah’s Ark. Accessed 07-01-02. http:///www.thetruereligion.org/ark.htm http://www.beconvinced.com/NOAHARK.htm

Xenohistorian “Noah’s Flood” Accessed 07-09-02 http://www.xenohistorian.faithweb.com/genesis/gen10.htm
Zahid, I. “Noah’s Ark”. Accessed 07-01-02. http://www.islam1010.com/archaelogy/noahark.html

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Facing Armageddon