Tag Archive | Catholic

Vatican and Queen Accused of Crimes Against Humanity

The Vatican and Queen of England Accused of Crimes Against Humanity

 

Not many would have heard of the existence of the International Tribunal into Crimes of Church and State – not many would have the time being caught up with the demanding changes on a physical, emotional and spiritual level. However, in the midst of the sweeping changes upon us, are the increasing number of peoples around the world who have suffered terribly as a result of the foundations upon which much of this unsustainable life we have come to know (and in some cases love) has been built upon. Those foundations have led to the mass torture, exploitation, and uprooting, and psychological devastation of many peoples, the suffering of which is difficult to fathom for those who have built their lives upon the same foundations being much removed.

International Tribunal into Crimes of Church and State, ITCCS, have been building a momentum, the first phase of which will take the form of tribunals between September 15 – October 31 2011. With the support of 30 organizations, including 8 indigenous nations in North America and Asia, survivors of the torture carried out by the Catholic Church in Australia, England, Ireland, and Eurostaete. On September 15, tribunals will take place in London, Brussels, Dublin, and Rome, because these cities are the scenes of historical crimes. The tribunals will also take place in Australia, Canada, Mexico City, and New York City.

One might feel an emotional attachment to the Pope, and the Queen of England, but so too did many Egyptians when former President Mubarak was put on detention, and eventually hospitalized in response to the crimes against Egyptians that he has been forced to account for. Leadership in African tradition is not a privilege, but a responsibility that is one of servitude, one that the prophet of Islam (SAW) warned about. However, it is a conscience that is arising out of the church by a man of the cloth that is a part of the driving force behind this endeavour.

As the international imperialists join forces with Middle Eastern leaders to prevent/’subdue’ and further popular uprising or change in the status quo,  Pope Joseph Ratzinger and Queen Elizabeth Windsor have been issued a Public Summons to appear before the tribunal on crimes against humanity, genocide, and child trafficking.

The Second Reformation

The tribunals are to culminate on October 30 (imperialist forces willing), a survivors from around the world aim to gather in Rome for what has been called the “The Second Reformation.”  Rev. Kevin Annett on the ITCCS stated:

 “We are in a spiritual battle with a murderous lie masquerading behind religion” said today.

“As we have pulled back its false mask and ordered it to depart from among us, now we must cleanse ourselves and our society of its influence, and enshrine truth and transformation where we once upheld injustice.”

The event will involve a 24 hour fast for purification and transformation, ending on October 31st with  a protest and an international press conference.

The forces the ITCCS are challenging have been dominating all life and perception of reality in the name of the Doctrine of Discovery, and these are forces that will do anything, and use any means to defend what they have created with Libya standing as proof, however a whole continent seems totally unrepresented in this all important challenge, a challenge that in real terms must be done to cleanse the past that rules and ruins many lives today… that continent is Africa.

The Doctrine of Discovery has been upheld today, despite denial, through the Concordats, a secret treaty with as many as 73 nations since 1982 – billions of tax-payers money to finance the Vatican. All of Europe are committed to the Concordats, and unwittingly most of the 3rd World. For example the Vatican controls Spain’s laws and education system while Spain paid €262mn/U.S.350mn to the Vatican. Hugo Barrero, who has studied the concordats stated:

“So much money is pouring into Rome through these agreements that the Vatican bank has a special financial officer just to handle the concordat money. But like the Bank itself, most of these agreements are secret and can’t be modified or even reviewed by elected officials of that country.”

An untaxed income of U.S$50bn annually – with all activities subsidized by the taxpayer.

More could be said – much more, as the evidence permeates the very air that we breathe. All one pray for is the protection of the well intentioned forces behind this endeavour, and for all negative forces to be transmuted to a higher level.

There is a past that needs to be cleansed, for it cannot simply be forgotten without re-instituting the same foundations if we are to ALL move on to reciprocal balanced relations.

Source:

For more, please visit http://www.concordatwatch.eu/

Related Topics:

The Doctrine of Discovery

The Pope and the Threat of a New Evangelism

My Duty is to Save the World

The People Who are Not Supposed to Exist

The Stolen Generation

Our Africa: Europe’s Debt Pt.1

Xenophobia on African Shores and Elsewhere

A Black Independence Day?

Reliving the Past of Human Experimentation

Being Driven Insane!

Carelessness or Malice in Haiti?

Controlling Haiti

The International Elite vs. Communal Democracy of Ivory Coast

From Liberation to Re-enslavement

Beating the Drums of Resistance

Wiki-exposes the Bestiality that is Zionism

The Crime That Everybody Knows About

Kill Gaddafi By Any Means Necessary!

NATO: A Feast of Blood

Syria and the Threat of Imperialist Intervention

A Student Embraces the Spanish Youth Revolution

The Hypocrisy of Anti-Immigration in Arizona 

Arizona: AZ SB1070 Is Not a Law

Eugenics or Bioethics?

Oil vs. Communities: The Case of Ecuador

Oil vs. Communities: The Case of Peru

Oil vs. Communities: The Case of Sudan

1st. Round Table Of World Parliament Of Indigenous Peoples

U.S. Military Officers for 9/11 Truth Mission Statement

Islamophobia: From the Spanish Inquisition to the Western Inquisition

Who or What is El-Qaeda?

Truth, Karma and Reform

Another World is Possible!

Bill Gates and Population Control

Bill Gates and Population Control

By Hwaa Irfan

There is an old piece of news that should not be allowed to disappear into the archives, because there are people alive who are, and will be affected by it. First of all, one has to thank Bill Gates as the driving force behind the computer and the Internet; after all, without him I might not be able to share this deliberation. However, there are serious concerns with the philanthropic activities of Microsoft co-founder, and the richest man in the world, Bill Gates and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

It was in 2007 that Bill Gates spoke to graduates at Harvard University about his dream of an “ideal technology” pertaining to diseases like malaria. A curious term “technology” when applied to human lives. One wonders in his call for pharmaceutical companies to produce the necessary drugs, if he realizes the nature of the pharmaceutical industry, and how it prices profit over human cost. One wonders if he realizes that the nature of human health, well-being, and the environment are a little more complex than the IT that he has been his world since 1975, for in the real world, to find real solutions, one has to listen to, and explore all sides.

The Gates Foundation has put millions, hoping to attract millions, behind their vaccination campaign. The explanation given on the website in brief:

    “Vaccines are one of the most effective health interventions ever developed. We are committed to research on new vaccines, and the delivery of existing and future vaccines to those who need them. We can’t do it alone though. Donors, private industry and other partners are critical to ensuring we can reach every child”

To achieve the above, the campaign, or the “Global Health Program,” aims to “harness advances in science and technology” in developing countries, because these countries are the most neglected. The diseases concerned are diarrhea, HIV-AIDS, malaria, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases. Not stopping there, the Foundation also wants to focus on family planning, nutrition, maternal and neonatal and child health, tobacco control, and vaccine-preventable diseases. The problem is, the element of eugenics!

Short History of Eugenics

The legacy of the Catholic Church using religion to justify oppression and the extermination of non-Christians in the conquering of non-Christians laid the foundation, but a pseudo-science was incorporated months after the publication of Charles Darwin’s ‘The Descent of Man.’ Supporters began to misapply his arguments to the races and classes of man – eugenics. Eugenics is about the “improvement” of humans by selective breeding and culling, as in the annual British elite sport of fox-hunting. Fears grew as the European elite were having fewer children resenting the procreativity of the lower classes. Distorting the message of Christianity like Islam which views spiritual development as the only means towards the furtherance of the development of man; the poor were viewed as unsuitable candidates for bringing children into the world. It did not matter that man’s exploitation of man was an intrinsic factor.

It was in the 19th century that psychiatrists Dr. Benedict Morel, Wilhelm Griesinger, Emil Kraepelin and Henry Maudsley stressed the hereditary, biological and organic causes of mental illnesses and were reflected in the psychiatric texts of that century. Then labeled ‘psychiatric genetics’; eugenics developed at the Galton Laboratory as a spin-off from the Eugenics Societies in England and America. Records show notable members of the Eugenic Societies held influential positions reaching out into the everyday lives of ordinary people. They included:-

      • Dr. W. Norwood East – medical inspector to H.M Prisons for England and Wales, 1930. He was also a lecturer on ‘Crime and Insanity’ at Maudsley Hospital, 1937, an internationally renowned mental institution in S. London where many patients are Muslims and black people. He was also lecturer at the Galton Institute in 1947.

• Mr. A.W. F. Edwards – a membr in 1961 and 1977 active in the Department of Community Medicine at Cambridge University.

• Sir George Eley – member in 1939 , 1977 and Treasurer from 1946 – 1954. He was Chairman of the British Bank of the Middle East 1952 –1977 and director of the Bank of England 1946 – 1966.

• Professor, Dr. Sir Arthur Ellis – member 1937 and 1957. He was assistant physician at the Rockefeller Instittute and director of the Medical Unit , London Hospital 1924 – 1943.

• Professor Eysenk Hans Jurgen – member in 1947 and 1957. He was active in the Institute of Psychiatry at Maudsley Hospital 1946 – 1983. Remains unforgotten by many black people of the 1960s and 1970s as one of the engineers of I.Q tests that proved to be racist in design.

The Eugenics Society sponsored the Galton Lectures that became the Galton Institute. Francis Galton was the cousin of Charles Darwin , and formulated the definition of eugenics as the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial quality of future generations physically or mentally.

Experimentation in illicit drugs played a fundamental role in psychiatric genetics. It was in 1900 when the US government planted cannabis, opium and henbane along the banks of the Potomac River where the Pentagon now stands. Subject to controversy, the experiment in the ‘doping of America’ was short-lived. This led to the Food and Drugs Act of 1906. By 1901 N. Dakota banned marriage for alcoholics, the ‘insane’ and sufferers of tuberculosis. Adding to the concept of “unsuitable people” the Royal Commission on Feeble-Minded-ness alarmed many people by stating that their racial type was deteriorating because of the greater fertility of inferior strains and believed that social control of the individual was absolutely essential.

While the idea for the need of psychiatric eugenics grew in Europe and the US the Rockefeller Foundation poured money into Germany to support ‘psychiatric genetics’ in the 1920s including the Galton Laboratory, and found executives to continuously direct the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry in Munich and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Eugenics and Human Heredity. The Swiss psychiatrist Ernst Rudin was involved in both institutions and was assisted by Rockefeller employees Otmar Freiher von Vershauer and Franz J. Kallman. Together the world’s richest families the Rockefellers, the Warburgs, the Harrimans and the British Crown agencies sponsored much of the social engineering enterprises. Carnegie’s Steel, Harriman’s railroad money and Rockefeller’s oil money supported installations like the Station for Experimental Evolution and the Eugenics Record Office, ERO which was also funded by the Eugenics Society. Research from the Galton Institute was employed for practical implementation by both the Society and the Office. The ERO set-up an inspection station on Ellis Island in 1912 for new immigrants. They received I.Q tests of which 80% mainly from South and East Europe were declared ‘feeble-minded’.

Scientific developments were about to give psychiatric eugenics some foundation. The concept of gene-mapping appeared as early as the 1930s with the study of mice, fruit flies and bread mold. At the same time the Rockefeller Foundation discovered that one strain of pneumonococcus could be made into another strain by transferring the DNA free of all protein affecting protein synthesis and cell metabolism. Psychiatric genetics became ‘mental hygiene’ and was now applicable to population control. For this a knowledge in societal make-up was required for which the Population Investigation Committee pioneered the mathematical science of demography which was set-up by the British Eugenics Society in 1936 financed by donations from interested individuals and organizations.

By the 1930s there were 34 US states which had laws against mixed marriages and 24 states had passed laws calling for sterilization of the ‘feeble-minded’, criminals, the poor and the mentally ill. Eventually 80,000 were sterilized in state institutions across the country. The 1935 German sterilization laws were modeled on the US laws .

Between 1930 – 35 the Rockefeller Foundation had financed an anthropological survey looking at ‘eugenically worthwhile populations’ which was carried out by Rudin, Verschuer, Eugen Fischer and others . Also, the Rockefeller Foundation found psychologists and eugenicists in order to form the medical research institution the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation. This was directed by US General Marlborough Churchill who reorganized US military intelligence and the British secret service for WWI. The Macy Foundation managed London’s experiments in mind control and social engineering. In 1932, Rudin headed the Eugenics Foundation which was supported by the British-led eugenics movement, and argued for the killing or sterilization of people whose heredity according to them made these people a public burden or a national scapegoat.

By the mid-30s, Adolf Hitler was made German Chancellor. The governor of the Bank of England arranged for the armament of Nazi Germany and strategically advised the supporters of Hitler – the Rockefellers, the Warburgs and the Harrimans. Rudin became the head of the Racial Hygiene Society and along with his staff were appointed part of the task force of heredity experts that was chaired by SS chief Heinrich Himmler. In 1932 Hitler took over Germany through negotiations at the home of Joachim von Ribbentrop (part of the household of Duke of Connaught). Hitler was Britain’s weapon to break-up Europe into further manageable pieces as in Africa, Central Asia and currently the Middle East. Himmler drew-up the sterilization laws which were published in the US 1933 ‘Eugenical News’ with Hitler’s signature. Additional laws were drawn up including the illegal cohabitation of Aryans with non-Aryans by Otmar Verschuer and Dr. Josef Mengele.

The ERO received a grant from the widow of E.H. Harriman (President George Bush’s grandfather Prescott Bush’s partner in Brown Brothers Harriman ) whose objective was to finance Hitler. Seizing all opportunity to continue experiments into ‘psychiatric eugenics’ regardless of war, I.G Farben built a large factory at Auschwitz in Poland to use the cartel’s patents with concentration camp slave labor to make gasoline from coal. SS guards were paid for by Standard Oil while Jews and other prisoners were selected for killing if deemed unfit for slave labor. Rockefeller official David O’Brien wrote

    “…it would be unfortunate if it was chosen to stop research which has no relation to war issues”.

Rockefeller had defended its reputation defining its funding of Nazi German programs as limited to psychiatric research! Today’s largest financial institution Deutsche Bank was also involved in funding the construction of Auschwitz concentration camp along with others.

Psychiatric eugenics the psychological arm of genetic eugenics ( gene testing, cloning, prenatal genetic determination, artificial insemination, birth control and euthanasia) represents the public playing field. Despite the past horrors time and propaganda have eroded from sight the negative implications in the discoveries printed weekly in the press. The past may seem irrelevant, but it has been paving a way to the future.

Psychiatric eugenics became more concrete when the Rockefeller Foundation and the Canadian military joined forces in psychiatric research in 1943. Marijuana was a part of the research at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington where federal cases are kept. Chief psychiatrist, Winfred Overholser a Scottish Riter (freemasons), balanced marijuana and tobacco to induce a state of irresponsibility in the subject and became euphemistically known as the ‘truth drug’. This was given to US soldiers at Army bases under FBI’s J. Edgar Hoover, a Scottish Riter, in order to sift out any subversive elements.

Also in 1943 Otmar Verschuer became medical commander of Auschwitz concentration camp whilst serving as director of Rockefeller’s Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology securing funds for Mengel’s experiments from the German Research Council. The focus was twins. Mengele would hang around the railway cars arriving at Auschwitz to obtain his subjects. Experiments included the draining of blood daily, needles injected into their eyes for research on eye color, experimental blood transfusions and infections, organs and limbs were removed, sex changes were attempted, females were sterilized and the male twins were castrated.

Meanwhile in 1944 Norman Montagu resigned from the Bank of England and began the National Association for Mental Health, NAMH. His wife Priscilla Reyntiens a pro-eugenicist was vice-Chair. Norman’s British group expanded to take control of the world psychiatric profession. Verschuer wrote to the Bureau of Human Heredity in London in 1946 asking for help to continue his work and in 1947 the Bureau moved to Copenhagen and so did Verschuer financed by Rockefeller. In 1948, NAMH gathered the world psychiatric and psychological leaders from the International Congress on Mental Health at the UK’s Ministry of Health and formed the World Federation for Mental Health. Nina Ridenour, technical coordinator to the US delegation wrote in ‘Mental Health in the United States: A Fifty Year History’”

    “…the World Federation for Mental Health… had been created upon the recommendation of the United Nations, WHO and UNESCO because they needed a non-governmental (i.e. unchecked by law or constitution) mental health organization with which they could cooperate”.

The Congress was run by the host NAMH whose patron was the Duchess of Kent, widow of Grand Master of Masons 1939 – 42. By the 1950s, the British psychological warfare unit coordinated a behavioral control group at the Tavistock Institutute involving the Scottish Rite, the CIA, US, Canadian and UN agencies. Known as ‘MK-Ultra’ in the 1970s under the CIA experimentation included brainwashing by drugs, hypnosis and electroshock treatment. Dr. Franz J.Kallman psychiatrist to Rudin who had argued for sterilization of the healthy relatives of schizophrenics (viewed as criminals), Verschuer and others formed the American Society of Human Genetics which organized the Human Genome Project that arose out of the first International Congress in Human Genetics held in Denmark in 1956. In Britain, the British Eugenics Society set-up an Investigation Council in 1958 to:

    “…review the existing status and future possibilities of human artificial insemination genetically, medically, legally, and socially”.

The aim was to ensure continuity of genes from those deemed intellectually superior .

The Department of Energy, DOE, had many laboratories left over from the atomic bomb project possessing nuclear energy for power and production. They continued to experiment on the biological effects of irradiation at Oak Ridge, Llos Alamos, Livermore and Berkeley. So they had expertise ready to contribute towards the Human Genome Project with the physical capacity to separate chromosomes by size and strain speeding up the whole process. With training medical research developed interdependently from warfare and now consisted of biophysicists, physicists, nuclear medical experts and engineers launching the Manhattan Project for civilian biomedicine. This structure was formulated by the Atomic Energy Commission, AEC. All Manhattan Project reports were declassified for research in the medical and biological fields encouraging manufacturers to produce instrumentation for radiation measurement. One contract to UCLA from AEC for an annual $250,000 was for biophysics, radiology, nuclear medicine and cancer research.

By the mid-1970s hundreds of human genes had been mapped., but previous to this the Rockefellers nurtured debate on the notion of overpopulation. Under the Nixon Administration the official policy of eugenics was still active . The two roads of eugenics and overpopulation met under the Planned Parenthood Federation of America in their 1985 annual report the “Proud our past and planning for our future”. The plan included the continuance of eugenics in the form of birth control and/or sterilization of the ‘mentally retarded’, the ‘physically handicapped’, psychiatric patients, criminals and prisoners. They opened a clinic in Brownsville, New York, a neighborhood of Slavs, Hispanics, Italians and Jewish immigrants disguising abortion as birth control.

The Federally funded Indian Health Service sterilized 3,000 native Americans annually.

    “Surgical sterilization has become increasingly important in recent years as one of the advanced methods of fertility management” said Dr. R. T. Ravenholt, then director of the US office of Population.

This fertility management was successful because of unsuspecting victims. A 26-year old native American woman entered a clinic of a Los Angeles in 1970 seeking a womb transplant because she was having difficulty getting pregnant. After investigation the doctor informed her that she had had a hysterectomy. Sally Torpy in her research discovered through the records (1969 – 1974) of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, HEW, an increased family planning budget from $51mn – $250mn. From that 192,000 – 548,000 native American women had been sterilized under the directive of USAID which hoped to sterilize 25% of the world’s fertile women, which would be beneficial to US commercial interests. The logic of this can only be understood in the context that the developed countries have encountered decreasing fertility therefore fear a decreased influence on the global political and economic stage.

The Global Health Program

When it comes to global health, one thinks of the U.N. and such organizations, not the initiative of one man. Such is the hard earned wealth of Bill Gates that he can consider such a philanthropic idea. After all, in Islam, it is the rizq, sustenance of Allah, that has been given to the rich to play their role in establishing a societal equilibrium concerning the poor. Therein, it is natural to consider the poor of one’s own country, but to consider the whole world!

Eugenicists will eagerly seek to further such an initiative. As Gates states in the above video:

    “The world today has 6.8 billion people. That’s heading up to about nine billion. Now if we do a really great job on new vaccines, health care, reproductive health services, we could lower that [number of 9 billion] by perhaps 10 or 15 percent. But there we see an increase of about 1.3 [billion].”

The reasoning behind this goes deeper as Gates considers that this will greatly contribute towards bringing the projected population growth from 2.2 billion down to 1.3 billion on the basis of human Co2 emissions – yes human Co2 emissions!

    “Until we get near to zero [carbon emissions]” he claimed, “the temperature will continue to rise” – which he said would lead to “extremely bad” consequences…

“Now if we do a really great job on new vaccines, health care, reproductive health services, we lower that by perhaps 10 or 15 percent,” Gates said at a TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference in 2010.

Given the recent U.N. declaration that the holes in the ozone layers have stopped proliferating, Bill Gates may have been working in the IT industry for too long, and needs to touch base with the reality that man cannot predict the future, and that there is a greater power. One wonders if in his calculations he has included the current global death rate whether man-made or as a result of natural disasters. With a history of funding well-known pro-abortion programs, why set to do apply the same intention in a country other than one’s own, whereby there are significant issues pertaining to whole families living on the streets, and where increasingly many cannot afford healthcare? Not that one would want to inflict such an inhuman campaign on others, regardless where they come from, and regardless of their status, after all the one thing that God gave us, which seems to be amiss in the Global Health Program is the right to choose. Real choice means being informed, not just about the vaccine, but the nature of the vaccine, and the possible consequences, especially if people are not going to be tested beforehand for suitability. Vaccinosis is something that many do not here about, instead one hears about the importance of vaccines. Vaccinosis is a reaction to a vaccine, which can be mild or it can be acute. A mild reaction includes fever, respiratory problems, vomiting, digestive problems, headaches, swelling in the area vaccinated, fainting or seizures. An acute reaction to a vaccine causes urinary problems, problems with the kidneys, allergies, Attention Deficit Disorder, eczema, bowel dysfunction, autism, asthma, learning problems, or reproductive problems or the problem may defer to the offspring, amongst other reactions.

To further the global sterilization campaign, ideas such as directing sharp blasts of ultrasound to a man’s scrotum, rendering him infertile for 6 months is under consideration – this may sound harmless enough, but as many know ultrasound has been used as a tool for diagnosis since the 1970s, but ultrasound can cause negative as well as positive pressure on the object of focus. The pressure exerted causes molecules to both push and pull away from each other, which can lead to cavities in biological tissue, in fact on an ethical basis, experiments on humans cannot be carried out!

Another program funded by the Foundation towards reducing mass sterilization involves penetrating nanoparticles through human skin to deliver the vaccine. One thought that the problem was not the delivery of vaccines, but vaccines themselves. The researchers are Carlos Alberto Guzman of the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Germany and Claus-Michael Lehr and Steffi Hansen of the Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research. The idea is that vaccine are to be delivered as a spray to be triggered by the sweat glands, and it has been postulated that this method opens the door to being sprayed without consent, and without knowledge.

To add insult upon injury, the Foundation not satisfied with handing the health of developing nations over to the pharmaceutical industry, is now including the agricultural industry, which has already monopolized what we grow and what we eat. The Foundation is funding risky genetically modified seeds for, who else, but the “hungry” Africans who have been developing their own sustainable agricultural initiatives. For instance, Nigeria has already developed without the use genetic engineering, a variety of corn that is drought, pest, and disease resistant!

Ignoring the impact of GM crops on non-GM crops, and land fertility, Gates, sorry the Foundation has partnered with a subsidiary of Pioneer Hi-Bred, DuPont in order to produce higher yields of GM corn for drought tolerant areas after he had partnered with the infamous agricultural giant Monsanto. To increase the impact, the seeds are to be given to small farmers for free!

The Gates Foundation seems set on its intent, and one can only pray that human will is more conversant with all the information necessary to make an informed choice, and at the same time are conversant with what life really involves, because even if the intentions of the Foundation are good, in the wrong hands the technology Gates is seeking to develop could be disastrous for hundreds if not millions! Governments should be aware of the implications involved and scrutinize any program from external elements that compromises the population in anyway particularly in light of the falling fertility rate that seems to becoming a growing problem in many countries (the irony is that this is happening moreso in developed countries), or undermines food security.

Sources:

Africa2000.com. “British Eugenics List of Members”. Eugenics Watch 1930 –1990. 10/15/02. http://www.Africa2000.com/ENDDX/eug_e.htm
Adams, M. Bill Gates Funds Covert Vaccine Nanotechnology http://www.thedailytell.com/2010/05…
Bill Gates http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/g/bill_gates/index.html
Brook.edu. “The US Nuclear Weapons Cost Study Project: The Cost of the Manhattan Project”. 09/09/02. http://www.brook.edu/dybdoCahill, George. “A Brief History of the Human Genome Project”. 10/05/02. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~cbbc/courses/bio4/bio4-1997/16-HumanGenome.html#996869
Cahill, G. “A Brief History of the Human Genome Project”. 10/05/02. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~cbbc/courses/bio4/bio4-1997/16-HumanGenome.html#996869
Chaitkin, A. “British Psychiatry: From Eugenics to Asassination”. 10/05/02. htp://www.heliophobe.com/mkultra.htm
Greer, G. “Sex and Destiny”. Britain: Picador. 1984
Gutierrez, D. Bill Gates Now Pushing Genetically Modified Seeds in Africa http://www.naturalnews.com/029071_Bill_Gates_GM_seeds.html
Johansen, B. “Native Americans: Reprise/Forced Sterilizations”. 03/06/02. http://www.ratical.org/ratville/sterile.html
Kornblum, A. T. “Fremasonry and the US Holocaust Memorial Museum”. 06/29/02. http://srjarchives.tripod.com/1998-10/KORNBLUM.HTM
Lederman, Robert. “G.W Bush, Jesus and the Manhattan Institute”. 09/09/02. http://www.baltech.org/lederman/809bush.html
Lederman, R. “What’s Hiding in G.W’s Cabinet?” 09/09/02. http://www.get.pm.com/governments/gw-appoint.htm
Lenoir, R. “The Manhattan Project for Biomedicine”. 09/19/02. http://www.stanford.edu/dept/HPS/TimLenoir/ManhattanProject.htm
Newtalkradio.com. “The Banking Conspiracy”. 06/30/02. http://www.newtalkradio.com/banks.htm
Newman, H. “The Rainbow Swastika”. 10/05/02. http://searchlight.iwarp.com/articles/nahumanity.html
“The Timeline: 1900 – 1909”. 18 10/15/02. http://thepostman.50megs.com/timeline/1900-1909.htm
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Runningdeerslonghorse.com. “The Genocide of Native Americans: A Sociological View”. 03/06/02. http://www.runningdeerlonghorse.com/webdoc15.htm
Santafe.cc.fl.us. “The Manhattan Project”. 09/19/02. http://inst.santafe.cc.fl.us/~dsimon/chem/manhat.htm
Shah, S. “The Dark Secret Kept Hidden for 50 Years: How A Global Media Empire was Built on a Lie”. 10/09/02. 4. News: Business. Independent.co.uk. 10/10/02. http://news.independent.co.uk/business/news/story.jsp?story=340907
Tillman, J. Gates Foundations Explains Bill Gates Re: Vaccines Reducing Population http://www.lifesitenews.com/ldn/2010/mar/10030810.html
Toolan.com. “Chapter II: The Survival of the Fittest”. 10/15/02. http://www.toolan.com/hitler/survive.html
Utexas.edu. “The Manhattan Project”. 09/19/02. http://me.utexas.edu/~uer/manhattan/intro.html

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The Doctrine of Discovery

The Doctrine of Discovery

By Hwaa Irfan

You can always tell the state of a nation, when an ethnic/religious group have to have their own media in order for their voice to be heard. It was in one such media outlet Indian Country Today that I discovered that a female Native American had presented a report/study on the “Doctrine of Discovery”. Tonya Gonnella Frichner is her name, and founder of the American Indian Law Alliance, but my mind stalled at the “Doctrine of Discovery” which sounded serious given the degree of “silence” that surrounds the occupation of the U.S. Many around the world want a better world on many levels, but sometimes the extent of the harm caused by one group of people upon another requires redress in order for there to be reconciliation. To my alarm, the study focuses on an agreement between the Catholic Church, and State Heads that gave European sovereignty the right to claim, conquer, and rule a land, and to enslave if not convert Africa, The Americas, and Asia as subjects of the Christian kingdom.

Frichner a lawyer presented what is considered a “preliminary study” on the “Doctrine of Discovery” using the example of its impact on Native Americans in April 2010 at the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues.

    “Clearly, (we) have joined the debate by declaring definitively that we are human beings. However, for more than five centuries, the doctrines of discovery and dehumanization have been institutionalized, and this is the context of the work we are doing on the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,” Frichner said to Indian Country Today.

Various Christian sects are up in arms, and are denying responsibility at one level or another. So what is the fuss about!

The fuss is the Catholic church on behalf of Christendom 5 centuries ago made it official for certain Western powers to plunder, occupy, dehumanize and convert entire peoples from the continents of Africa, Asia, and the Americas as well as rape those lands of their natural resources for the benefit of the Christian empire on the basis that Christians are superior and everyone else was heathen. One recalls a series of “ one-to-one meetings that took place with Pope John Paul II and presidents like G.W. Bush junior. Strange how it occurred out of the blue!

The study as presented by Frichner demands on behalf of indigenous peoples everywhere a thorough investigation into the impact of what was essentially colonialism on those peoples. The study explained its purpose as follows:

U.N. Document E/C.19/2010/13
Ninth Session
New York, 19 – 30 April 2010

Impact on Indigenous Peoples of the International Legal Construct Known as the Doctrine of Discovery, which has Served as the Foundation of the Violation of Their Human Rights

In the language that the Native Americans are governed by, the study focuses on the centuries (5) of destruction that has without limit extracted the natural resources from the “traditional territories of indigenous peoples, which has resulted in dispossessing, and impoverishing a people, and that the legal framework for the “Doctrine of Discovery” is still considered legal by the U.S. government. Even though the study focuses on the U.S., it is as an example for indigenous peoples everywhere on the following premise:
“We maintain, that the principle declared in the fifteenth century as the law of Christendom, that discovery gave title to assume sovereignty over, and to govern the unconverted natives of Africa, Asia, and North and South America, has been recognized as a part of the national law [Law of Nations], for nearly four centuries, and that it is now so recognized by every Christian power, in its political department and its judicial.” Judge John Catron for the Supreme Court of Tennessee in the case State v. Foreman (USA)
The hope is that all countries with indigenous peoples will be investigated under the terms of the Doctrine of Discovery and the Framework of Dominance recognizing the differences from one people to another.

International Law
Looking at international law, which derived from the Law of Nations, and prior to that “the law of Christendom” according to the study, reference here is made to a Judge John Catron (1786 – 1865) who whilst on the Supreme Court of the State of Tennessee:

    “… officially identified “a principle” as part of the “law of Christendom”, specifically, “that discovery gave title to assume sovereignty over, and to govern the unconverted [non-Christian] peoples of Africa, Asia, North and South America” Catron had declared that this principle had been recognized as part of the Law of Nations “for nearly four centuries, and that it is now so recognized by every Christian power, in its political department and its judicial”

From the mid-15th century, we find many documents from the Vatican known as the “papal bulls”, which are decrees claiming right of conquest , sovereignty, and dominance by Christian European monarchies. For example the papal bull Dum diversas was issued by Pope Nicholas V, in 1452.

The papal bull Romanus Pontifex was also issued by Pope Nicholas V, in 1455 also to Alphonso. However it was the papal bull Dum diversas which ushered in the West African Slave Trade, to conquer the people and to put them in indefinite slavery. The irony is that the bull that lays the foundation is Dum diversas, of which a copy does not even exists within the Pope’s encyclical library online. Romanus Pontifex yes, but not Dum diversas. From the Romanus Pontifex we discover the manner of procurement of Africa, The Americas, and Asia was to and does take place as directed by the Pope Nicholas V:

    “We [therefore] weighing all and singular the premises with due meditation, and noting that since we had formerly by other letters of ours granted among other things free and ample faculty to the aforesaid King Alfonso — to invade, search out, capture, vanquish, and subdue all Saracens and pagans whatsoever, and other enemies of Christ wheresoever placed, and the kingdoms, dukedoms, principalities, dominions, possessions, and all movable and immovable goods whatsoever held and possessed by them and to reduce their persons to perpetual slavery, and to apply and appropriate to himself and his successors the kingdoms, dukedoms, counties, principalities, dominions, possessions, and goods, and to convert them to his and their use and profit — by having secured the said faculty, the said King Alfonso, or, by his authority, the aforesaid infante, justly and lawfully has acquired and possessed, and doth possess, these islands, lands, harbors, and seas, and they do of right belong and pertain to the said King Alfonso and his successors, nor without special license from King Alfonso and his successors themselves has any other even of the faithful of Christ been entitled hitherto, nor is he by any means now entitled lawfully to meddle therewith — in order that King Alfonso himself and his successors and the infante may be able the more zealously to pursue and may pursue this most pious and noble work, and most worthy of perpetual remembrance (which, since the salvation of souls, increase of the faith, and overthrow of its enemies may be procured thereby, we regard as a work wherein the glory of God, and faith in Him, and His commonwealth, the Universal Church, are concerned) in proportion as they, having been relieved of all the greater obstacles, shall find themselves supported by us and by the Apostolic See with favors and graces…

Some of the decrees issued in this context were:

Rex Regum, 1436, issued by Eugene IV gave the Portuguese king the right to wage war against “enemies of Christianity, but enjoined other Christian kings to do so as well. Lands appropriated would then come under the sovereignty of Portugal with Brazil as the standing legacy to successful colonization .

Dum Diversas 1432, According to A.J. R. Russell-Wood, demonstrated Papal authority and support “to attack, conquer and subdue Saracens, pagans, and enemies of Christianity; to reduce them to perpetual slavery for the purpose of converting them to Christianity; to capture their lands and possessions; and to transfer their lands and properties to the crown of Portugal”.

Romanus Pontifex, reaffirmed the previous papal bulls, but this time included control of the seas, and fishing rights, and prevented any other country from interfering in the “rights” of Portugal whether that was through discovery or conquest

Inter Caetera, 1456 issued by Calixtus III, set the scene for global balkanization in 1493. It was issued after Christopher Columbus returned from his discoveries granting by request of Ferdinand and Isobel of Spain the right to claim lands founded by Columbus, and any land Spaim might find in the future. According to Russell-Wood this:

“granted to the Order of Christ “all power, dominion and spiritual jurisdiction” over lands conquered and to be conquered from “Cape Bojador and Cape Nun to the Indies”

The Treaty of Alcacovas 1479 and 1480 with Portugal acknowledging the rights of Spain over the Canaries, which was later extended to include the Caribbean and the Americas, whilst Spain acknowledged the rights of Portugal over the Madeiras, Azores, Cape Verdes and Africa with exclusivity over Guinea. This was recognized by the papal bull Aeterni Regis Clementia, 1481, which provided the groundwork for the Treaty of Tordesillas.

Here, we will only focus on one of the papal bulls, the Inter Caetera. It praises Christopher Columbus for the “discovery” of lands, and peoples for the propagation of the Catholic faith (on the premise of fulfilling a divine duty in the name of Christendom) with the gold, spices and others “precious things” found in these lands to be befitting of “Catholic kings and princes”. In terms of balkanization the Inter Caetera states:

    “Almighty God conferred upon us in blessed Peter and of the vicarship of Jesus Christ, which we hold on earth, do by tenor of these presents, should any of said islands have been found by your heirs and successors, kings of Castille and Leon, forever, together with all their dominions, cities, camos, places, and villages, and all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances, all islands and mainlands found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole, namely the north, to the Antarctic pole, namely the south, no matter whether the said mainlands, and islands are found and to be found in the direction of India or towards any other quarter, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west, and south from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde…”

The Inter Caetera was incorporated into European Treaties, and in 1823, the Christian initiative, the Doctrine of Discovery was adopted by American law by the Supreme Court. The vehicle for this adoption was the case Johnson v. McIntosh in 1823, which was presided over by Chief Justice John Marshall. Since 1984, advocates of American natives have been campaigning for Pope John Paul II to revoke the Christian Doctrine of Discovery as follows:

1984, a letter to Pope John Paul II via the Secretary of State to the Vatican got a response commenting on the employment of the authors, the Anasazi Alliance.

1992, the Indigenous Law Institute begin a global campaign calling for Pope John Paul II to revoke the Christian Doctrine of Discovery

1993, 60 indigenous representatives submit a draft resolution to the Parliament of World Religions, Australia calling for Pope John Paul II to revoke the Christian Doctrine of Discovery. There is concensus, but the Parliament of World Religions overturn the vote the next day.

1993, via the UN Human Rights Center to the Observer Mission of the Holy See to the U.N, send a letter to Pope John Paul II calling for him to revoke the Christian Doctrine of Discovery. There was no response.

1993, a resolution is passed by the Indigenous Intellectual Property Conference, calling for the papal bulls to be revoked.

1994, a call to revoke the papal bulls the Romanus Pontifex, and the Inter Caetera at the conference of the Parliament of World Religions, U.S., by the Indigenous Law Institute.

1999, the United Church of Christ sponsor a UCC resolution passed by the Pacific Islander and Asian American Ministries calling upon those of conscience within the Catholic church to persuade Pope John Paul II to revoke papal bulls Dum diversas and Inter Caetera by 2000.

2000 a delegation of indigenous peoples meet with the Vatican Council for Peace and Justice

2005, the Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the U.N. sends a letter to Steven Newcomb of the Indigenous Law Institute ask for information on the work of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences pertaining to the papal bull Inter Caetera. The letter states that:

    “… taken from the context of the political climate at the time, the notion of international law and the geographical notions then extant, the bull Inter Caetera, like other documents of that era, has become ipso facto, obsolete and with no effect”

2005, the International Council of Thirteen Indigenous Grandmothers send a letter to the Vatican calling for Pope Benedict XVI to revoke the papal bulls Dum diversas, Romanus Pontifex, and the Inter Caetera. There was no response. The International Council of Thirteen Indigenous Grandmothers go to the Vatican in 2008 calling for Pope Benedict XVI to revoke the 3 previously mentioned papal bulls.

Null and Void
If in reality the papal bulls that we are concerned with here had become “ipso facto” i.e. obsolete, when did this happen?

In the case of Johnson vs. M’Intosh, in Illinois claim by Johnson and Graham was made to land bought from the Piankeshaw Indians given as grant to these Indians by the U.S. 1823 the Doctrine of Discovery was referred to as follows:

    “On the part of the defendants, it was insisted, that the uniform understanding and practice of European nations, and the settled law, as laid down by the tribunals of civilized states, denied the right of the Indians to be considered as independent communities, having a permanent property in the soil, capable of alienation to private individuals. They remain in a state of nature, and have never been admitted into the general society of nations. Footnote All the treaties and negotiations between the civilized powers of Europe and of this continent, from the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, to that of Ghent, in 1814, have uniformly disregarded their supposed right to the territory included within the jurisdictional limits of those powers. Footnote Not only has the practice of all civilized nations been in conformity with this doctrine, but the whole theory of their titles to lands in America, rests upon the hypothesis, that the Indians had no right of soil as sovereign, independent states. Discovery is the foundation of title, in European nations, and this overlooks all proprietary rights in the natives”.

In the case of the Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia where the Cherokee Nation claimed non-allegiance to the U.S., and to be the original land owners reference to the Doctrine of Discovery was made as follows:

    “The bill states the grant, by a charter in 1732, of the country on this continent lying between the Savannah and Alatahama rivers, by George the Second, “monarch of several islands on the eastern coast of the Atlantic,” the same country being then in the ownership of several distinct, sovereign, and independent nations of Indians, and amongst them the Cherokee Nation.

    “The foundation of this charter, the bill states, is asserted to be the right of discovery to the territory granted; a ship manned by the subjects of the king having, about two centuries and a half before, sailed along the coast of the western hemisphere, from the fifty-sixth to the thirty-eighth degree of north latitude, and looked upon the face of that coast without even landing on any part of it”.

    “This right, as affecting the right of the Indian nation, the bill denies, and asserts that the whole length to which the right of discovery is claimed to extend among European nations is to give to the first discoverer the prior and exclusive right to purchase these lands from the Indian proprietors, against all other European sovereigns, to which principle the Indians have never assented, and which they deny to be a principle of the natural law of nations or obligatory on them”.

In 1985 in the case of the County of Oneida, New York vs. Oneida Indian Nation.

“[D]iscovery gave title to the government by whose subjects, or by whose authority, it was made, against all other European governments, which title might be consummated by possession.

    “The exclusion of all other Europeans, necessarily gave to the nation making the discovery the sole right of acquiring the soil from the natives, and establishing settlements upon it. . . .

    “The rights thus acquired being exclusive, no other power could interpose between [the discoverer and the natives].

    “In the establishment of these relations, the rights of the original inhabitants were, in no instance, entirely disregarded; but were necessarily, to a considerable extent, impaired. They were admitted to be the rightful occupants of the soil, with a legal as well as just claim to retain possession of it, and to use it according to their own discretion; but their rights to complete sovereignty, as independent nations, were necessarily diminished, and their power to dispose of the soil at their own will, to whomsoever they pleased, was denied by the original fundamental principle, that discovery gave exclusive title to those who made it.”

In the more recent 2005 case of City of Sherill, New York vs. the Oneida Indian Nation of New York.

Under the “doctrine of discovery:

    ” County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of N. Y., 470 U. S. 226, 234 (1985) (Oneida II), “fee title to the lands occupied by Indians when the colonists arrived became vested in the sovereign–first the discovering European nation and later the original States and the United States,” Oneida Indian Nation of N. Y. v. County of Oneida, 414 U. S. 661, 667 (1974) (Oneida I). In the original 13 States, “fee title to Indian lands,” or “the pre-emptive right to purchase from the Indians, was in the State.”

In Their Own Voice

An Indigenous Peoples’ Statement to the World
Delivered at The Parliament of the World’s Religions
Convened at Melbourne, Australia
on the Traditional Lands of the Wurundjeri People of the Kulin Nation
December 9, 2009

    “In keeping with the theme of this year’s Parliament: “Make a World of Difference: Hearing each other, Healing the earth,” We, the Indigenous Peoples participating in this Parliament hereby issue this statement:

    “We are Indigenous Peoples and Nations who honor our ancestors and care for our future generations by preserving our lands and cultures. For thousands of years, Indigenous peoples have maintained a fundamental and sacred relationship with Mother Earth. As peoples of the land, we declare our inherent rights to our present and continuing survival within our sacred homelands and territories throughout the world.

    “We commend the Australian government’s recent support for the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples adopted on September 13, 2007. We call on all governments to support and implementthe provisions of the UN Declaration, particularly the right of self-determination.

    “Since time immemorial we have lived in keeping with our sacred laws, principles, and spiritual values, given by the Creator. Our ways of life are based on thousands of years of accumulated ecological knowledge, a great respect for our Mother Earth, a reverence and respect for all our Natural World relations and the survival of our languages, cultures, and traditions;

    “The Indigenous instructions of sharing and the responsibility of leadership to future generations are wise and enduring. As the traditional nations of our lands we affirm the right to educate our children in our earth-based education systems in order to maintain our indigenous knowledge systems and cultures. These have also contributed to our spiritual, physical and mental health;

    “Indigenous people’s concept of health and survival is holistic, collective and individual. It encompasses the spiritual, the intellectual, the physical and the emotional. Expressions of culture relevant to health and survival of Indigenous Peoples includes relationships, families, and kinship, social institutions, traditional laws, music, dances, songs and songlines, reindeer and caribou, ceremonies and dreamtime, our ritual performances and practices, games, sports, language, mythologies, names, lands, sea, water, every life forms, and all documented forms and aspects of culture, including burial and sacred sites, human genetic materials, ancestral remains so often stolen, and our artifacts;

    “Unfortunately, certain doctrines have been threatening to the survival of our cultures, our languages, and our peoples, and devastating to our ways of life. These are found in particular colonizing documents such as the Inter Caetera papal bull of 1493, which called for the subjugation of non-Christian nations and peoples and “the propagation of the Christian empire.” This is the root of the Doctrine of Christian Discovery that is still interwoven into laws and policies today that must be changed. The principles of subjugation contained in this and other such documents, and in the religious texts and documents of other religions, have been and continue to be destructive to our ways of life (religions), cultures, and the survival of our Indigenous nations and peoples. This oppressive tradition is what led to the boarding schools, the residential schools, and the Stolen Generation, resulting in the trauma of Indigenous peoples being cut off from their languages and cultures, resulting in language death and loss of family integrity from the actions of churches and governments. We call on those churches and governments to put as much time, effort, energy and money into assisting with the revitalization of our languages and cultures as they put into attempting to destroy
    them;

    “The doctrines of colonization and dominion have laid the groundwork for contemporary problems of racism and dispossession. These problems include the industrial processes of resource exploitation and extraction by governments and corporations that has consistently meant the use of imposed laws to force the removal of Indigenous peoples from our traditional territories, and to desecrate and destroy our sacred sites and places. The result is a great depletion of biodiversity and the loss of our traditional ways of life, as well as the depletion and contamination of the waters of Mother Earth from mining and colonization.

    “Such policies and practices do not take into account that water is the first law of life and a gift from the Creator for all beings. Clean, healthy, safe, and free water is necessary for the continuity and well being of all living things. The commercialization and poisoning of water is a crime against life.

    “The negative ethics of contemporary society, discovery, conquest, dominion, exploitation, extraction, and industrialization, have brought us to today’s crisis of global warming. Climate change is now our most urgent issue and affecting the lives of indigenous peoples at an alarming rate. Many of our people’s lives are in crisis due to the rapid global warming. The ice melt in the north and rapid sea rise continue to accelerate, and the time for action is brief.

    “The Earth’s resources are finite and the present global consumption levels are unsustainable and continue to affect our peoples and all peoples. Therefore, we join the other members of the Parliament in calling for prompt, immediate, and effective action at Copenhagen to combat climate change;

    “In July 2009, the Episcopal Church in the United States adopted a resolution at its 76th General Convention, repudiating and disavowing the dehumanizing Doctrine of Christian Discovery. By doing so, the Church took particular note of the charter issued by King Henry VII of England to John Cabot and his sons, which authorized the colonizing of North America.

    “It was by this ‘boss over’ tradition of Christian discovery that the British crown eventually laid claim to the traditional territories of the Aboriginal nations of the continent now called Australia, under terra nullius and terra nullus. This step by the Episcopal Church was an act of conscience and moral leadership by one of the world’s major religions. Religious bodies of Quakers and Unitarians have taken similar supportive actions.

    “In Conclusion, we appeal to all people of conscience to join with us in support of the
    following issues:

    “1) Climate Change and its far-reaching impacts on our Peoples and homelands—for this we
    need immediate action.

    2) The protection Indigenous peoples significant and sacred sites within their traditional
    homelands and territories and working to eradicate discrimination and intolerance against earth based Indigenous spiritual and ceremonial traditions.

    3) Protection of Sacred Places used for prayer and ceremonies. At these special places we
    Minister to the earth and heal her sacred soul.

    4) The critical need to strengthen and continue our unique cultures and languages,
    particularly by bringing together elder cultural and wisdom keepers and Indigenous youth.

    5) The return of the bones of our ancestors and our sacred items.

    6) The immediate support and implementation of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

    8) To call upon Pope Benedict XVI and the Vatican to publicly acknowledge and repudiate the papal decrees that legitimized the original activities that have evolved into the dehumanizing Doctrine of Christian Discovery and dominion in laws and policies”.

Sources:

An Indigenous Peoples’ Statement to the World http://www.doctrineofdiscovery.org/

Findlaw. The County of Oneida vs. The Oneida Indian Nation
http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=470&invol=226

Findlaw. City of Sherill vs. Oneida Indian Nation of N.Y.
http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=000&invol=03-855

Grandmothers Council. Timeline of the Efforts by Indigenous Nations and Peoples Calling upon the Vatican to Revoke the Inter Caetera Papal Bull of 1493 http://www.grandmotherscouncil.com/docs/timeline.pdf

Johnson vs. M’Intosh http://www.doctrineofdiscovery.org/johnvmac.htm

Legal Information Institute. “Cherokee Nation v. Georgia” http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0030_0001_ZS.html

Newcomb, S. “Five Hundred Years of Injustice: The Legacy of 15th Century Religious Prejudice – Origins of the Doctrine of Discovery” http://ili.nativeweb.org/sdrm_art.html

Pope Alexander VI “The Inter Caetera” http://www.kwabs.com/bull_of_1493.html

Pope Nicholas V “The Bull Romanus Pontifex (Nicholas V), January 8, 1455” http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/indig-romanus-pontifex.html

Popes for Slavery http://www.romancatholicism.org/popes-slavery.htm

Talliman, V. “Christian ‘Doctrine’ Fueled Dehumanization: UNPFII Report

Talliman, V. “Revoke the Inter Cetera Bull http://ili.nativeweb.org/ricb.html

Wood-Russell, A. J.R. “Settlement, Colonization, and Integration in the Portuguese-Influenced World, 1415-1570”. Portuguese Studies Review 15: 1-2 (2007) 1 – 35. John Hopkins University

Related Topic:
The Flowering Tree