Tag Archive | Ethiopia

The Oldest Known Modern Man in Ethiopia*

The Oldest Known Modern Man in Ethiopia*

Depiction of what the ancient ‘Herto Man’ may have looked like. His skull dates to 160,000 years ago. (Bradshaw Foundation) Background.

 

The El Niño weather phenomenon of 1996-97 wrecked havoc on many parts of the world; however, it also enabled one team of scientists to make an incredible discovery. When the skies cleared and the floodwaters dried, a group of palaeontologists in Ethiopia’s Afar region unearthed three human skulls as well as numerous other human bone fragments. After years of reconstruction and analysis, the remains were dated to approximately 160,000 years. The so-called ‘Herto skulls’ were thus older than the closest competitors by tens of thousands of years. Some experts believe they deserve their own subspecies classification: Homo sapien idaltu.

The Afar Research Site: Home of the Herto Skulls

The team consisted of researchers from the University of California, Berkley, and from the Ethiopian Rift Valley Research Service. The state of Afar is located in the northeastern corner of Ethiopia and stretches 27,820 square miles (72,053 km). Yet, the area the paleontologists have for years been particularly interested in is called the Afar Triangle (or Afar Depression), a geological depression caused at the junction of three diverging tectonic plates: the Nubian, Somalian, and Arabian. It is one of the lowest places in Africa and frequently holds the title of the hottest place on Earth. It also has the world’s largest lava lake formed by the most continuously active volcano, Erta Ale. The region is home to the Afar people, considered to be “the toughest people in the world” (Onuh, 2016)

From this region, one of the earliest known hominin fossils was discovered in 1974: a female Australopithecus afarensis known affectionately as Lucy. And here, in 1997, the Herto team discovered the oldest Homo sapien remains.

Erta Ale is an active shield volcano located in the Afar Region of northeastern Ethiopia, within the Danakil Desert. (CC BY-SA 2.0) Remains such as the skulls known as the ‘Herto fossils’ were discovered here.

 

The Serendipitous Discovery of the Skulls

In 1996-97, El Niño caused punishing rains to fall throughout much of Eastern Africa. The deluge caused many of the semi-Nomadic Afar people, including those of the Herto village, to abandon the Depression for higher ground. The rains caused a good deal of soil to wash into the Awash River, exposing numerous fossils. As a result of the people and herds moving to higher ground, these newly unearthed bones were not trampled and remained undamaged waiting to be discovered.

“When the scientists returned 11 days later, it took them only minutes to find the skulls of two adults, probably male. Six days after that, Dr. Berhane Asfaw of Ethiopia’s Rift Valley Research Service found a third, the skull of a 6-or 7-year-old child, shattered into about 200 pieces. After years of painstaking cleaning, reassembly, and study, the team was confident enough to tell the world that it had found the earliest true Homo sapiens — older by at least 1,000 generations than anything previously discovered” (Lemonick and Dorfman, 2003).

Although the child’s skull appeared almost identical to modern human children skulls, the adults showed marked differences. “Each of the adult skulls was remarkably big. ‘We compared this with skulls of 6,000 modern humans, and still after that comparison not one was as big and robust as the Herto male,’ said Tim White, a University of California, Berkeley paleontologist and co-leader of the international team that found and studied the skulls. ‘These were very, very large robust people.’” (Joyce, 2003)

Nonetheless, the skulls are like modern humans in every feature. “The face is flat with prominent cheekbones, but without the protruding brow ridge of pre-human ancestors or Neanderthals. And the braincase is rounded, like a soccer ball, rather than the football shape of earlier human ancestors.” (Joyce, 2003) For this reason, the team proposed calling the remains a subspecies of humans Homo sapiens idaltu, ‘idaltu’ meaning ‘elder’ in Afar.

A Herto skull, Homo sapiens idaltu

 

Features of the Skulls

The similarity in features finally puts to rest the long-standing controversy over the origin of modern humans. While it is known that pre-human species left Africa and settled in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, for decades it was not clear how these pre-human species all managed to develop into the same Homo sapien species. The answer is now clear that modern humans also developed in Africa and also left (most likely due to climate change). The second wave of African humanoids interbred and/or overtook the pre-human species, as can be seen in the well-studied case of the Neanderthals (one of the species that left Africa in the first wave).

“What this discovery in Ethiopia shows is that the shared features of modern humans – our high-rounded brain case, small brow ridges — originated in Africa,” said Chris Stringer from the Museum of Natural History in London” (Joyce, 2003).

Comparison of Modern Human and Neanderthal skulls from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. (CC BY-SA 2.0)

 

A Post Mortem on the Ancient Skulls

Perhaps more interesting to the casual reader of paleo-discoveries was the treatment of the skulls immediately after their owners’ deaths 160,000 years ago. Each of the three intact skulls, as well as the (possibly) 10 skull fragments found at the Herto site, bore marks of deliberate tampering after death. Not in a cannibalistic way. Rather, the Herto fossils show the earliest known evidence of mortuary practices.

“Cut marks on the skulls indicate that the overlying skin, muscles, nerves and blood vessels were removed, probably with an obsidian flake. Then a stone tool was scraped back and forth, creating faint clusters of parallel lines. The modification of the child’s skull is even more dramatic. The lower jaw was detached, and soft tissues at the base of the head were cut away, leaving fine, deep cut marks. Portions of the skull were smoothed and polished.” (Lemonick and Dorfman, 2003)

Skull of the six to eight-year-old child, found in 1997, shows evidence of cut marks and polish after death. (CC BY-SA 3.0)

 

‘The cut marks aren’t a classic sign of cannibalism,’ White said while showing the skulls to a TIME reporter in Addis Ababa.

 ‘If you wanted to get at the brain in order to eat it, you’d just smash open the skull.’ Instead, he suspects, the scratches might be a form of decoration. As for the polished areas, he says, ‘we know they weren’t caused by the environment, because the marks go across the breaks between the recovered pieces. The child’s skull looks as though it has been fondled repeatedly.’

‘This,’ concludes White, ‘is the earliest evidence of hominids continuing to handle skulls long after the individual died.’” (Lemonick and Dorfman, 2003)

 

Source*

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A 200,000 Year-Old City in Southern Africa pre-Dates Sumer*

A Field View of Reality to Explain Human Interconnectedness*

Hidden Human History*

Human DNA Tied Mostly to Single Exodus from Africa Long Ago*

Reflections on the Idea of a Common Humanity*

The Cosmic Joke behind Human Genetics*

Secret Meeting at Harvard Discusses Synthetic Humans*

The Human Body Emits, Communicates with, and is Made from Light*

The Hidden History of the Human Race*

Humanity at the Crossroads: The Crisis in Spiritual Consciousness

DNA Study Finds Ice Age Europeans Predominantly Had Dark Complexions and Brown Eyes*

The Genocide of the Peoples of Europe*

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British Government Killed 10 Million Iranians In 1919*

British Government Killed 10 Million Iranians In 1919*

The document in the American Archives, reporting the widespread famine and spread of epidemic disease in Iran, estimates the number of the deceased due to the famine to be about 8-10 million

The Big Three at the Tehran Conference Left to right: Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill.

By Sadegh Abbasi

One of the little-known chapters of history was the widespread famine in Iran during World War I, caused by the British presence in Iran. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Britain became the main foreign power in Iran and this famine or–more accurately–‘genocide’ was committed by the British. The document in the American Archives, reporting the widespread famine and spread of epidemic disease in Iran, estimates the number of the deceased due to the famine to be about 8-10 million during 1917-19 (1), making this the greatest genocide of the 20th century and Iran the biggest victim of World War I.

Iranian victims of famine and disease, WWI

It should be noted that Iran had been one of the main suppliers of food grains to the British forces stationed in the empire’s South Asian colonies. Although bad harvest during these two years made the situation worse, it was by no means the main reason why the Great Famine occurred. Prof. Gholi Majd of Princeton University writes in his book, The Great Famine and Genocide in Persia, that  American documents show that the British prevented imports of wheat and other food grains into Iran from Mesopotamia, Asia, and also the USA, and that ships loaded with wheat were not allowed to unload at the port of Bushehr in the Persian Gulf. Professor Majd argues that Great Britain intentionally created genocide conditions to destroy Iran, and to effectively control the country for its own purposes. Major Donohoe describes Iran of that time as a “land of desolation and death”. But this event soon became the subject of a British cover up.

Britain has a long record of its several attempts to conceal history and rewrite it in their own favour. The pages are filled with conspiracies that were covered up by the British government to hide its involvement in different episodes that would tarnish the country’s image. One of the clear examples is the “Jameson Raid”; a failed coup against Paul Kruger’s government in South Africa. This raid was planned and executed directly by the British government of Joseph Chamberlain under the orders of Queen Victoria (4) (5). In 2002, Sir Graham Bower’s memoirs were published in South Africa, revealing these involvements that had been covered up for more than a century, focusing attention on Bower as a scapegoat for the incident.

The terrible famine of 1876-79 was spread out across nearly the whole of southern, western and northern India

The records that were destroyed to cover up British crimes around the globe, or were kept in secret Foreign Office archives, so as to, not only protect the United Kingdom’s reputation, but also to shield the government from litigation, are indicative of the attempts made by the British to evade the consequences of their crimes. The papers at Hanslope Park also include the reports on the “elimination” of the colonial authority’s enemies in 1950s Malaya; records that show ministers in London knew of the torture and murder of Mau Mau insurgents in Kenya and roasting them alive . These records may include those related to Iran’s Great Famine. Why were these records that cover the darkest secrets of the British Empire destroyed or kept secret? Simply because they might ‘embarrass’ Her Majesty’s government.

A famine occurred in Ireland from 1845 until 1852 which killed one fourth of the Irish population. This famine was caused by British policies and faced a large cover up attempt by the British government and crown to blame it on ‘potatoes’. The famine, even today, is famous in the world as the “potato famine” when, in reality, it was a result of a planned food shortage and thus a deliberate genocide by the British government .

The true face of this famine as a genocide has been proven by historian Tim Pat Coogan in his book The Famine Plot: England’s Role in Ireland’s Greatest Tragedy published by Palgrave MacMillan. A ceremony was planned to take place in the U.S. to unveil Coogan’s book in America, but he was denied a visa by the American embassy in Dublin.

Therefore it becomes obvious that Britain’s role in Iran’s Great famine, which killed nearly half of Iran’s population, was not unprecedented. The documents published by the British government overlook the genocide, and consequently, the tragedy underwent an attempted cover-up by the British government. The Foreign Office “handbook on Iran” of 1919 mentioned nothing related to the Great Famine.

Julian Bharier, a scholar who studied Iran’s population, built his “backward projection” estimation of Iran’s population  based on reports from this “handbook” and, as a result, ignored the effect of the Great Famine on Iran’s population in 1917. Bharier’s estimations were used by some authors to deny the occurrence of the Great Famine or to underestimate its impacts.

By ignoring Iran’s Great Famine in his estimations, Bharier’s work faces four scientific deficiencies. Bharier does not consider the loss of population caused by the famine in his calculations; he needs to ‘adjust’ the figure of the official census in 1956 from 18.97 million to 20.37 million, and this is despite the fact that he uses 1956 census as his primary building block for his “backward projection” model. He also ignores the official growth rates and uses his personal assumptions in this regard, which is far lower than other estimates. Finally, although Bharier frequently cites Amani’s estimates , in the end Bharier’s findings contradict that of Amani’s; notably Bharier’s population estimate for 1911 is 12.19 million while Amani put this figure at 10.94 million.

Despite deficiencies in the population estimates offered by Bharier for the period of the Famine and its earlier period, his article offers useful data for the post-Famine period; this is because these figures are generated from 1956 backward. That is to say, numbers generated from 1956 to 1919 are thus credible because they do not include the period of famine. Moreover, this portion of Bharier’s data are also true to that of the American Legation. For example, Caldwell and Sykes estimate the 1919 population at 10 million, which is comparative to Bharier’s figure of 11 million.

Gholi Majd was not the first author to refute Bharier’s figures for this period. Gad G. Gilbar, in his 1976 article on demographic developments during the second half of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, also considers Bharier’s estimates inaccurate for the period.

In an apparently biased review of Majd’s work, Willem Floor confirms Bharier’s model , despite its apparent deficiencies, and takes a mocking tone toward the well- documented work of Gholi Majd to undermine the devastation caused by the British-instigated famine in Iran, to the point of total denial of the existence of such a genocide. Floor also offers inaccurate or untrue information to oppose the fact that the British deprived Iranians from honey and caviar in the north, as he argues caviar was haram (religiously prohibited), while no such fatwa has ever existed in Shia jurisprudence and all available decrees assert that caviar is halal or permissible under the Islamic law. There was a rumour made up by Russians at the time, saying that Caviar was haram and Britain made full use of this rumour.

Britain induced the Ethiopian famines of the 1970s and 1980s

Another criticism made by Floor was to question why Majd’s work does not use British archival sources. A more important question is why Majd should have used these sources when they totally ignore the occurrence of the famine in Iran. The fact that Majd used mainly U.S. sources seems to be reasonable on the grounds that the U.S. was neutral toward the state of affairs in Iran at the time, and made efforts to help by feeding them.

Source*

Related Topics:

St. Patrick’s Day*

UK to Pay £20m compensation to Mau Mau Victims*

American and British Taxes Paying for Eugenics in India*

WTO Agreement: India Sells Out on Indian Food Rights*

USAID and Sterilization Camps In India*

India: The re-assimilation of the Jewel in the Crown of Western Empire*

Call for UK to Pay India Reparations for Colonial-era Damage*

The Zionist Holocaust of 66 Million Russians*

You’re not a ‘Hitler’ if you Kill Ten Million Africans*

Ethiopia Kicks Out U.S. Killer Drone Base*

Ethiopia Kicks Out U.S. Killer Drone Base*

At the request of the Ethiopian government, the United States has stopped flying drones from southern Ethiopia in its campaign against militants in Somalia and Yemen, officials said.

On Tuesday, U.S. officials confirmed that drone activities had ceased at an airfield in the town of Arba Minch, which had been used to launch Reaper drones that can carry Hellfire missiles and satellite-guided bombs.

“This was done upon request by the Ethiopian government,” government spokesman Getachew Reda said, according to Reuters.

“In the first place, this was a project with a limited timespan and both governments had long prepared themselves for this eventuality,” he added without giving further details.

The closure is likely to mean U.S. drone activity will return to the base in Djibouti. Flights there had been halted due to safety concerns, but the facility has since been upgraded.

Ethiopia is one of Washington’s key allies and is considered a bulwark against militant Islam in the region, Reuters reported. Ethiopian troops have been fighting al Qaeda affiliate al Shabaab militants in Somalia since 2011 as part of an African Union peacekeeping mission.

“U.S. military personnel are no longer in Arba Minch,” said David Kennedy, Public Affairs Officer at the US Embassy in Addis Ababa.

“As we work with our African partners, our mutual needs change over time, and a determination was made that our use of the facilities in Arba Minch is no longer necessary,” he told Reuters in an email.

Source*

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Djibouti orders the U.S. to Leave and for China to Step in*

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U.S. Air Force Hires Private Companies to Fly Drones in War Zones*

USA Drone Base in North Africa*

U.S. Drones Attack Syria’s Military, “Disguised as an Airstrike against ISIS”*

Somali Man Takes Legal Action against US, Germany Over Father’s Drone Killing*

Ex-Drone Pilot ‘They don’t care who gets killed’*

Drone Pilots have Bank Accounts and Credit Cards Frozen by Feds for Exposing US Murder*

The Guardians of Prophet Muhammad’s Burial Chamber*

The Guardians of Prophet Muhammad’s Burial Chamber*

By Ishtar Al

In the exhibition ‘The Guardians,’ Adel Quraishi has produced an intimate glimpse into the individuals entrusted with the keys to the Prophet’s burial chamber at Al-Masjid Al-Nabawi in Madina Al-Manawarah- or Madina The Radiant. Keeping to themselves, the gatekeepers are revered for their service to the Masjid. Though the portraits capture eight of the Guardians, only five remain from what was once a community of hundreds in the city of Medina.

Keepers are appointed to maintain the Prophet’s Mosque, a practice that has spanned centuries, dating as far back as the 12th century. Today’s gatekeepers of the Prophets’ burial chamber originate from present day Eritrea and Ethiopia. Ethiopian eunuchs were commonly found in the fourteenth century, despite efforts made to ban the practice of castration in the country. In the Arabian Peninsula, the men were known for their roles as servitors and gatekeepers of the Masjid. This custodian role, which dates back to the twelfth century, continues today.

Quraishi documents the custodians of the Masjid for the first time in a series of photographs. Commissioned by the Governor of Medina, Quraishi delivers a poignant look at the last of the eunuch guardians, described to pursue a simple existence maintaining the burial chamber in the Masjid.

Adel Quraishi is a Saudi Arabian photographer from Al Khobar, in the Eastern province. His describes passion for portraiture through the connection he feels with his subjects:

“In a very deep way there were emotions not easily expressed, but I still felt it. You feel at ease around them. They have very balanced personalities. There was light in the room- not my own lighting, but there was something beyond that. A beautiful energy.”

Quraishi’s portraits deliver just that, by providing a moving insight into the eight remaining custodians of the holy burial chamber. This is an exhibition not to be missed on the premiere of the photographs in the UK.

The exhibition runs at Leighton House Museum until the 29th November as a part of the Nour Festival of Arts, with the museum acting as the perfect setting for Quraishi’s work, with its vivid architecture and magnificent Arab Hall. Leighton House showcases paintings, sculpture, tiles and furnishings from across the world and is well worth the visit.

 

 

Source*

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Prophet Muhammad Said It, Now Top Doctors are Saying It*

ISIS exposed at House of Lords and the Covenant of Prophet Muhammad (SAW)*

Mecca: 95 per cent of Holy Sites have been Destroyed*

The Destruction of Jannatul Baqi*

Wahhabism on Trial? How Islam is challenging Al Saud’s Custodianship of Mecca*

Erta Ale’s Lava Lake Close to Overflowing, Ethiopia*

Erta Ale’s Lava Lake Close to Overflowing, Ethiopia*

The active lava lake in the southern pit of the Ethiopian Erta Ale volcano, 30 – 40 m (100 – 130 feet) in diameter, remains very active and approaches levels close to overflowing the margins of the pit again, being only a few meters below the floor of the caldera, Volcano Discovery reports.

Erta Ale, known in the local Afar language as the “smoking mountain” and “the gateway to hell” is a continuously active basaltic shield volcano in the Afar Region of north-eastern Ethiopia. It is centered over the East African Rift system, a triple junction setting whose movements are resulting in the formation of a pull-apart basin or rift. The volcano comprises mainly Mafic material (silicate mineral or rock rich in magnesium and iron) which has been brought up to the surface caused by unroofing of the mantle due to this rift formation.

Not much is known about Erta Ale, as the surrounding terrain is some of the most inhospitable on Earth and the native Afar people have a legendary reputation for viciousness towards outsiders. Nevertheless, a Volcano Discovery group is currently there and we expect fresh news in about 10 days.

Erta Ale experienced a major eruption on September 25, 2005 which killed 250 head of livestock and forced thousands of nearby residents to flee. There was further lava flow in August 2007, forcing the evacuation of hundreds and leaving two missing.

Scientists from the Afar Consortium Project observed the lava lake during November 21 – 23, 2010 and noted Strombolian activity. The lava lake had filled the pit crater and breached the west rim, spilling two lava flows into the main crater. The lava lake was encompassed by a scoria ring that was about 4 m (13 feet) high on the south side. By November 23, the lake was above the scientist’s eye level when they stood west of the southern pit in the main crater.

To have a better understanding of Erta Ale and the region it is situated in, we invite you to watch the video titled “Ethiopia from the air”, filmed and edited by Boris Pustovoytov and Evgeniy Selezenyov mid-November 2015.

Geological summary

Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield volcano that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide edifice rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The 613-m-high volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located to the SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side.

Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the northern flank. (GVP)

Source*

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Earth Shift: Iceland’s Bárðarbunga Volcano Eruptions Begins*

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Paris Climate Change Conference shows Road to NWO Weather Control*

A 4,500-year Skeleton Tells Predates Eurasian Populations in N. Africa*

A 4,500-year Skeleton Tells Predates Eurasian Populations in N. Africa*

In Mota cave, located in the Gamo highlands of Ethiopia, a group of NSF-supported researchers excavation a rock cairn. They discovered under it a burial site containing the remains of a 4,500-year skeleton. Credit: Kathryn and John Arthur

Three years ago, a group of researchers found a cave in Ethiopia with a secret: it held the 4,500-year-old remains of a man, with his head resting on a rock pillow, his hands folded under his face, and stone flake tools surrounding him. The team named the man “Bayira,” which means “firstborn” in the Gamo language, a common name in the region.

Today, in an article in the journal Science, that research team, supported in part by the National Science Foundation’s Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences directorate (SBE), revealed that there was another kind of treasure within the skeleton. Using DNA extracted from the bones, geneticists working with the researchers have been able to provide the first ancient human genome sequence from Africa. The genome has the potential to provide new clues about how ancient African populations lived and interacted with humans in other parts of the world.

Traditionally, population geneticists have reconstructed past human population expansions using genetic information from living populations. They use African populations as the baseline to compare against populations whose ancestors migrated out of Africa. But such reconstructions can be complicated by the fact that many modern African populations have some non-African genes, in large part due to genetic admixture with Eurasians who migrated back into Africa during the last 3,000 years.

Bayira, however, predates those recent Eurasian migration events, making him an even better baseline for making inferences about human population history.

By comparing Bayira’s DNA to that of ancient Europeans and modern populations, the researchers were able to demonstrate that the Eurasians who migrated to Africa descended from populations of Early Neolithic farmers that colonized Europe roughly 7,000 years ago. And they were able to show that the Eurasian migrations into Africa left a larger genetic signature—and reached a broader geographic area—than previously thought.

Kathryn Arthur and John Arthur, archaeologists at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg, and their colleagues, including SBE-funded archaeologist Matthew Curtis of Ventura College and UCLA Extension, found the skeletal remains unexpectedly during a research trip to study the culture history of living residents of Ethiopia’s Gamo highlands.

“When we started working on this project, we had no real conception that it would turn out like this,” Kathryn Arthur said.

“We weren’t looking for human remains. It was very surprising, and very exciting.”

The skeleton is thousands of years old, but he is a Homo sapiens—a modern human. If he were alive today,

“He’d probably be a little smaller than we are in height,” she said.

“We know that he had brown hair and brown eyes. He’d look pretty much like we do.”

Kathryn Arthur discussed the work she and research team members—including Mauro Coltorti and Pierluigi Pieruccini of the University of Siena, and Jay Stock of the University of Cambridge—performed in Ethiopia, and some of the mysteries of Bayira that researchers are still working to solve.

left-to-right) NSF-supported researchers John Arthur and Kathryn Arthur of the University of South Florida St. Petersburg and Matthew Curtis of Ventura College and UCLA Extension

Q. How did you and your collaborators find Bayira?

John and I have been working in the Gamo highlands of Ethiopia for 20 years studying artisans. We were doing ethnoarchaeology—looking at potters and stone-tool using leatherworkers—and we noticed that there’s a lot of social stratification in Gamo society. We were wondering what the history of that was. We called in Matthew Curtis and together we were awarded our first NSF grant in 2006 and a second in 2010. We began by working with the community, finding significant historical sites.

One of the places the people there took me to was Mota Cave, in 2011. They said they used to hide here in the late 19th century and early 20th century during wars. And I thought, “Oh, this place has a dirt floor, it has potential for preserving some artefacts’ and features from the past.” We’d already excavated some other historical sites, and began our excavation of Mota Cave in 2012. In 2012, we came across these human remains with Stone Age tools. We knew from the obsidian stone tools that it was clearly a lot older than what we thought it was going to be. You can find Later Stone Age tools up to about 2,000 years old, but these were clearly more classic Later Stone Age tools.

This wasn’t someone who happened to die in a cave—your research says it’s the earliest burial in southwestern Ethiopia. How did the skeleton look?

When the team was uncovering the burial, they noticed that he was laying on his side in a crouched position, kind of curled up, with his head on a flat stone. The individual was facing west and in the current culture of the Gamo highlands, that’s the direction that women are buried in. Everyone originally thought the remains were of a woman. But of course, when Jay examined him at the National Museum in Ethiopia, he turned out to be a man. After all, we should expect some cultural differences over 5,000 years!

What new light does this skeleton shed on the ancient people who lived in those highlands?

From an archaeological perspective, it gives us some interesting information not just about migrations, but about the life of this individual. It was a highland environment where we found him, and as he dated to nearly 2,000 years before any known food production in the region, he was very likely a hunter-gatherer. We don’t know how mobile he might have been—there’s very little archaeology for the Holocene epoch [12,000 years to the present] in Southern Ethiopia. Much more of the research there has focused on early hominids. We didn’t know if this was someone who moved between the highlands and the lowlands or not.

What’s interesting is that his genome says he’s highly adapted to his environment. That means long-term occupation of the highlands. The highlands see a lot of erosion, so we don’t find a lot of intact archaeological sites—and there are not a lot of caves like this with deposits. It’s hard to see how densely the highlands were populated.

What sort of terrain were you, and Bayira, when he was alive, dealing with?

It’s very mountainous. The top of the highlands is about 9,000 feet. The cave’s at about 6,000 feet. It’s possible to drive close to the cave, sometimes, depending on the weather and the road. The cave looks into the highlands itself, but you can also see the river and the lowlands. It’s a pretty spectacular view.

What’s genetically significant about Bayira?

Bayira predates some of the Eurasian population’s larger migrations into North Africa—or other interactions with northern populations. The geneticists could use him as a baseline to look at the difference between Bayira, the modern African population, and Neolithic Eurasian populations.

The Mota cave is located in a mountainous region, and its entrance is about 6,000 feet above sea level. Weather and the changing conditions of the only road that runs near the cave — a gravel surface — made access complicated for the research team. Credit: Kathryn and John Arthur

This is “genetics-speak,” but it’s fascinating to me that living populations in Africa have this West Eurasian admixture. To me, that just shows how much interaction the continent has been involved in. It really overturns a lot of stereotypes and tropes we have about Africa being isolated prior to the colonial period. Obviously, they were interacting with other populations in a significant way. It was more than just trade. It was genetic interaction. They were tying their lives together through creating future generations.

This must be exciting work, and an exciting discovery, for an archaeologist.

It is, and we love to do it. It’s fun and exciting—not just the excavation, but working with the people who are living there today.

Source*

Related Topics:

Ancient Ancestors Had More DNA Than We Do Now*

Remains of another Ancient Human Species Found in S. Africa Cave*

Kenya: No Matter How Much ‘they’ Re-write History Evidence Says It Ain’t Necessarily So*

The Fractals at the Heart of African Designs*

The Hidden History of the Human Race*

African Jews Flood the Streets of Israel Demanding End to Police Brutality*

African Jews Flood the Streets of Israel Demanding End to Police Brutality*

When Netanyahu put into motion the ‘Charlie Hebdo’ false flags from Europe to Latin America then invited Jews from these regions to come ‘home’, this was a replay of How Fear was Instilled to Make Jews Leave for Israel in 1947 towards the establishment and populating of the land they now refer to as Israel. One can be sure that, that call did not include Africans whose Jewish ancestry has been removed from the media picture without even asking the question what makes refugees behave as if they have a right to protest in a country that is quite clearly xenophobic from a people who are under the delusion that they are superior to everyone else…

By M. David

From Oakland to Ferguson, to Beavercreek, to Baltimore and now to Jerusalem, the people are rising up against police brutality and murder. African-Israelis of Ethiopian Jewish descent have taken to the streets after a video of an Israeli police officer beating an Ethiopian Israeli, was leaked on social media.

Literally thousands of protesters, mostly members of Israel’s Ethiopian Jewish community, rallied in the streets of Jerusalem last Thursday, demanding an end to racism and racist, brutal and unchecked police actions in Israel.

While the incident recorded in the video took place last Sunday in the Tel Aviv suburb of Holon, the protests were centered around the entrance to the national Israel Police headquarters in Jerusalem.

The protest began with only a few hundred protesters but it quickly grew into the thousands by the time night hit.

The crowd then marched on the police headquarters, only a short distance from the Prime Minister’s Residence.

The video clearly shows an Israeli cop pushing an Israeli soldier of Ethiopian descent (Israel has mandatory military service). The man being pushed, Demas Fekadeh, hits the ground only seconds before a second officer enters the scene, beating Fekadeh.

See for yourself…

As the evening continued, protesters blocked the intersection between King George St. and Jaffa St.

If the Israel Police are to be believed, the protesters threw stones, bottles and even “fire bombs.” We saw no evidence of that, if anyone has photographs of this, please submit them to CounterCurrentNews@gmail.com.

Perhaps this was the police excuse for attacking 10 protesters seven of which needed to be rushed to hospitals for further treatment?

Images by Lior Mizrahi, and Ha’aretz

Ha’Aretz reports that the “Jerusalem Mayor Nir Barkat arrived at the scene and spoke to the protesters trying to lower the flames.”

He asked: “Do you doubt that the prime minister, ministers, and 120 Knesset members want to embrace the Ethiopian community?”

No one was feeling it. One protester shouted back: “I don’t want a hug. Look at me as you would look at a white person. I don’t need a hugs. That is a patronizing attitude that says that I’m incapable, so let’s give him a hug.”

Source*

In Operation Solomon, the Israeli intent behind airlifting the Ethiopian Jews (Falasha) out of Ethiopia was and has been eugenics…

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