Tag Archive | medicine

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)

By Hwaa Irfan

With a strong aromatic taste and aroma liken to celery, the geometric rhomboid seeds of the Fenugreek are rich in dietary fibre, phosphates and absorbable iron. The fresh leaves are used by Indians as tasty spinach, which can also be dried to be used as a flavoring. On a therapeutic level the seeds have been traditionally used for a variety of uses including arthritis, lactation in nursing mothers, sinus problems, and excess mucus for example. Fenugreek seeds have a long medicinal and culinary history in the Middle East, amongst the Egyptians, and in Rome and Greece.

As a member of the plant family kingdom of Leguminosae, it’s Latin name, Foenum-graecum means “Greek Hay” as fenugreek was used to improve low grade hay. Known in English as fenugreek/Bird’s foot, and helbah in Arabic, methi in Urdu, abish in Aramaic, Allibre in Basque, Wuh louh ba/ hú lú bā in Chinese, and Semen Foenugraeci in pharmaceutics, Trigonella foenum-graecum is an annual plant native to the Mediterranean, and has become naturalized in Africa, India, and South Europe.  Growing up to 2 feet, the simple stems bears trifoliate leaves, which are oblong in shape. The light yellow flowers are solitary. The rhomboid shaped seeds number up to 20 inside sickle shaped pods appearing brownish-yellow on the outside, but on the inside they are yellow. With a groove down the centre of each side, the seeds appear like two uneven lobes.

Commercial cultivation of the seeds today is prominent in Africa, Asia, France and Germany. One can find many product derivatives on the market today not least of all powdered fenugreek. However, the problem with powdered fenugreek in places like the U.S., for example is that it can be found to be adulterated with starchy material, probably to make the it look more bulky, but fenugreek itself has no starch!

Chemical Properties

  • 4-hydroxyisoleucine (free amino acid)
  • Aspartate
  • α-cadinol
  • α-bisabolol
  • Alanine
  • Apigenin (flavanoids)
  • Arginine (free amino acid)
  • Cadinene
  • Cysteine
  • Carpaine
  • Choline (alkaloid)
  • Histidine (free amino acid)
  • Isovitexin (flavanoid)
  • Isoleucine
  • Lecithin (phosphate)
  • Leucine
  • Luteolin (flavanoid)
  • Lysine (free amino acid)
  • Gentianine
  • Glutamate
  • Glycine
  • Methionine
  • Nucleoalbumin (phosphate)
  • Orientin (flavanoid)
  • Proline
  • Pyrazines (toasted seeds)
  • Quercetin (flavanoid)
  • Serine
  • Threonine
  • Trigonelline (alkaloid)
  • Tryptophan
  • Valine
  • Vitexin (flavanoid)
  • γ-eudesmol

Prophet Muhammed (SAW) is reported to have said that if people knew the benefits of fenugreek they would treat it like gold. Given the long list of identified bioactive compounds Prophet Muhammed (SAW) hit the nail on its head!

With the growing arena of patenting life forms in the pharmaceutical industry a 2002 claim (patent  application # 20040009247) was made in the U.S. on bioactive compound 4-hydroxyisoleucine and others ability to “facilitating and supporting the metabolism and transport of glucose and carbohydrates into muscle cells” The claimant noted 4-hydroxyisoleucine’s ability to stimulate the production of insulin under specified conditions, useful in the treatment of hyperglycemia, glucosuria and hyperlipidemia.

The alkaloid, Trigonelline reduces inflammation in cases or urinary tract infection.

The many therapeutic qualities include:

  • Anti-diabetic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antiseptic
  • Demulcent
  • Emmenagogue
  • Galactogogue
  • Hypoglycemic
  • Pectoral
  • Secretolytic/Mucolytic
  • Stomachic
  • Spasmolytic

For glossary see It All Makes Good Scents!

Rich in phytoestrogens, Fenugreek seeds have proven the test of time in both folk and traditional medicines as a galactogogue, i.e. increasing milk flow in nursing mothers. Science has identified the key bioactive compound as diosgenin given that there are some similarities between phytoestrogens and the female sex hormone estrogen.

A double-blind study gave either 500mg of fenugreek seed husk extract/placebo twice a day to 88 menopausal women. All of the women were suffering moderate to severe discomfort and were experiencing 3-5 hot flashes a day. The women who took the fenugreek had significantly  greater improvement on the Greene Climacteric Scale. The women who got the placebo had little improvement: from 34.25 at the beginning of the study to 30.49 at the end; the women who got the fenugreek had significantly greater improvement: from 34.83 to 19.64. Hot flashes decreased by 47.8% on fenugreek, and 32% of the women who took fenugreek had no hot flashes at all. There was also significant improvement in night sweats (57.1%), insomnia (75%) and headaches (53.9%) compared to placebo. Vaginal dryness improved significantly more in the fenugreek group.

Fenugreek was also superior to placebo for psychological symptoms. Mood swings improved by a significant 68.2%. Depression, anxiety and loss of sexual desire all improved significantly more on fenugreek. Compared to placebo, there was also a significant improvement in quality of life in the fenugreek group. The women who took fenugreek experienced improvements in physical and mental fatigue, concentration and interest in daily work as well as overall health, mental health and well-being.

The fenugreek also reduced total cholesterol, the dangerous LDL cholesterol and triglycerides without lowering the heart healthy HDL cholesterol in women who had elevated cholesterol.

In the fenugreek group, estradiol increased by 120% versus less than 5% in the placebo group. The researchers say that the increase in estrogen and the improvement in menopause symptoms “point towards the establishment of a healthy hormonal balance.” There was no toxicity and no adverse events in the fenugreek group (Phytother Res 2016;doi:10.1002/ptr.5680).

Another hormonal problem fenugreek helps is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Women with PCOS suffer from 2 of elevated male hormones, infrequent or lack of periods and enlarged ovaries with lots of small cysts. 50 women with PCOS took 500mg of fenugreek seed extract twice a day for 3 months. The fenugreek seed extract significantly increased both luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. At the end of the study, fenugreek had brought about a nonsignificant reduction in volume in the left ovary and a significant reduction in the right ovary. By the end of the study, 71% of women had regular menstrual cycles. 12% became pregnant during the study: an important improvement, since PCOS is the most common cause of ovulatory infertility. Fenugreek reduced cyst size in 46% of the women. 36% completely shrunk their cysts. Overall, 94% of women experienced improvement either from shrinking or eliminating their cysts, returning to regular menstrual cycle or becoming pregnant (Int J Med Sci 2015;12:825-31).

In Ayurvedic medicine, fenugreek is suggested for those living in cold climates, and for those whose extremities are always cold as fenugreek seeds are warming to the body. In this cases, it is recommended that the fenugreek should be fresh or dried. In Ayurvedic medicine , besides the promotion of milk, the seeds are also used to promote menses where there is delay, noting that diosgenin also helps to reduce menopausal symptoms, and to reduce the risk of colon cancer. It is also recommended for those who suffer general debility, or who suffer from tuberculosis.

As discovered by the claimants who aimed to patent a fraction of fenugreek, Ayurvedic medicine also applies fenugreek in the application of cholesterol reduction, i.e. the bad cholesterol, LDL = low level density lipoprotein, and the effect is significant.

Number of studies have proven the efficacy of fenugreek seeds in controlling Type I and Type II diabetes as the galactomannan content, slows down the rate at which sugar is absorbed into the blood, as well as reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease with the support of 4-hydroxyisoleucine’s which induces insulin production.

In Chinese Traditional Medicine, fenugreek is suggested for kidney patients, as a diuretic promoting the flow of urine, and in both Ayurvedic and Chinese Traditional Medicines, it is recommended to induce labour. The high fiber content helps the digestive tract to function properly adding bulk to the stool.

The German Commission have found fenugreek seeds to contain secretolytic properties, which demonstrates the ability to rid the body of excess mucus, an important tool in upper respiratory tract infections. The reputable British Pharmacopoeia notes the demulcent qualities, i.e. soothing, and its hypoglycemic action, which is important in the attempt to lower high blood pressure, but must be avoided by those who have hypoglycemia, i.e. low sugar in blood which is a result of too much insulin or low food intake.

Scholars of Hadith recommend a decoction of fenugreek seeds for sore throats which falls in line with the findings of the German Commission which recommend fenugreek seeds for infections of the upper respiratory tract. It eases sore throats as an antiseptic including tonsillitis, and severe coughs. In the Punjab a decoction of fenugreek seeds makes a good remedy for dandruff, adding tone to the hair.

The rich soluable iron content is what is relied on in rural communities where hard work is frequent for the relief of fatigue,. As the iron is easily digested and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, one would recommend it for pregnant women in replace of the less digestible iron supplement if it was not for the fact that fenugreek seeds can also induce labor being a spasmolytic!

Nutritional Content


  • Calcium
  • Folate
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Saponins
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin B₁
  • Vitamin C



Nowadays, fenugreek seeds can be bought in multitudinous of forms, from capsules, to extracts, as well as powders. If choosing a supplement over the actual seeds, be mindful that the actual herb/spice, fenugreek seeds is more beneficial than the supplement, which like all supplements are reduced versions of the original, and thus carry with them a list of potential side effects! If one is pregnant, or has epilepsy, diabetes, high level of bad cholesterol one should first discuss it with one’s doctor, especially if one is on a medication for any of those conditions, and one is considering the supplement. The herb/spice itself once bought should be stored void of moisture and light.

Appetite – In the Punjaba decoction of 5g of seeds to 1 pint increases the appetite in cases of anorexia.


Ears – A cup of fenugreek seed tea taken 3 x daily provides a good relief from Tinnitus – hypersensitivity to noise, due to the saponin content. A tea can be made by soaking 500g of fenugreek seeds in five ounces of cold water. After three hours (nothing good comes easily) the infusion can be drunk hot or cold.

Fevers – To reduce/prevent fevers, soak the seeds in water until they swell to form a thick consistency then apply as a poultice.


Gastrointestinal – A decoction of 1 ounce of seeds to 1 pint of water drunken, reduces internal inflammation of the stomach and intestines.


Hair – Added to shampoo, fenugreek seeds keeps dark hair dark.

SkinTo improve the condition of brown skin, in Ayurvedic medicine a paste from the seeds are made including chick peas, mustard oil, and turmeric, as the paste smoothes the skin, and gives it a glow. A poultice of the powdered seeds reduces inflammation where applied and helps to relieve skin irritation. A decoction of 1 ounce of seeds to 1 pint of water used as a poultice reduces abscesses, and boils.

Menses – A decoction of 1 ounce of seeds to 1 pint of water acts as an emmenagogue restoring balance to the menstrual cycle, and eases menopausal symptoms.


Pregnancy – In the Punjab a decoction of 5g of seeds to 1 pint increases the milk flow in nursing mothers.


Respiratory – A decoction of the tea reduces inflammation of the throat, eases breathing, and used as a wash the rectum and vagina, also reduced inflammation. The decoction can be made by using 1 ounce of seeds to 1 pint of water. In the Punjab a fine powder of fenugreek seeds is mixed with honey bees wax and used as a poultice to relieve chest pains, but is not a solution for angina or cardiac problems.

Urinary – A lukewarm decoction of the seeds increases the flow of urine, and 5g of seed to 1 pint of water as a decoction stems diarrhea.

In balance He gave us everything we needed, but as for what we want!


Felter, H.W. and Lloyd, U. King’s American Dispensatory, 1898

“Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.).” http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Trig_foe.html

“Fenugreek Seed.” http://www.florahealth.com/flora/home/canada/healthinformation/encyclopedias/fenugreekseed.asp

Foenum Graecum.—Fenugreek.”botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/f/fenugr07.html

Joshari. H. “Ayurvedic Healing Cuisine.” Healing Arts Press, Canada.

Lee, Steve S. “Fenugreek seed bio-active compositions and methods for extracting same…” freepatentsonline.com/y2004/0009247.html

Khan, M.L. A. “Get Cure From Methi’.” islamicvoice.com/april.2000/medicine.htm#cur

Mustaq, A. et al. “Useful Medicinal Flora Enlisted in Holy Quran and Ahadith.” American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009 ISSN 1818-6769

Oudhia, P. “Traditional medicinal knowledge about common herbs used in treatment of Fatigue in Chhattisgarh, India.” botanical.com/site/column_poudhia/301_fatique.html

Woolven, L. Snider, T “Why You Should Incorporate Fenugreek in Your Diet” greenmedinfo.com/blog/why-you-should-incorporate-fenugreek-your-diet


Allah’s Medicine Chest: Lemons

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Garlic

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Oranges

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Almonds

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Shea Butter

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Strawberries (Fragaria vesca)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Dates (Phoenix dactylifera)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Basil (Ocimum Basilicum)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Figs (Ficus Carica)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Pomegranate (Punica Granatum)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Acai Berries (Euterpe oleracea)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Beetroot (Beta vulgaris)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Tomatoes

300 Year Old Vietnamese Forest Food System

300 Year Old Vietnamese Forest Food System

Today’s clip is an inspiring story about the past and the kind of future that
is a viable, sustainable one for humanity.

Paradise on Earth — a 300 year old food forest in Vietnam. Twenty-eight generations have shared in developing this spectacularly lush
environment that not only feeds the family but provides all the medicinal
herbs and plants they need.”

For those governments itching to sell their nations forests for the short term solution of biofuels/sequestered carbons, this demonstrates what is truly sustainable for us, our children, and our children’s children…


Related Topics:

Reawakening Afghan Gardens With a Purpose

Al-Biruni’s “Economy of Nature” in Modern Biotechnology

Reclaiming Nature’s Knowledge Base

Increasing Food Insecurity for Short Term Gain

The Lesson That Cannot Be Taught!

Nature Helps Our Brain Connect!

New Intellectual Property Right Laws Increase Risk of Bad Medicine

A Food Revolution!

Finding a Global Balance

A Victory for Farmers, Consumers and Environment

Can’t See the British Woods Without the Trees

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)

By Hwaa Irfan

Chinese/Siberian Gooseberry, Manchurian Pineapple, and Silver/Tara Vine are just some of the English names given to the Kiwifruit. However, these are all different varieties with the kiwifruit in the marketplace being Actinidia deliciosa. The native habitat of Actinidia chinensis, the parent of the cultivated Actinidia deliciosa is the Yangtze River Valley of Northern China and the Zhejiang Province.  Known as Yang-tao (strawberry peach) in Chinese, the fruit was introduced to New Zealand at the turn of the 20th century and got the name kiwi after a bird native to New Zealand.

Actinidia chinensis is a deciduous vine of the Actinidiaceae family of the plant kingdom that has a preference for woodland, slope and ravines with moist loamy soil with or without shade, but preferably with exposure to the sunlight. There are male plants, and female plants, which must be grown together in order to propagate. Paper has been made from the bark, which is an insecticide. The edible broad leaves begin life as red-green shoots turning to a deep green as they grow older. In times of famine the nutritious leaves have come in handy.  The fruit does not start growing until the second year of planting the deciduous vine. The white – cream fragrant flowers are either male or female bloom from May – June, while the purple-black seeds ripen from October – December. Firm until ripe, the fruit grows up to 3in (7 cm) long becoming full with a sweet juice that has a distinctive flavor of its own. The flesh of the Actinidia chinensis is more yellow than emerald green, and the skin of the fruit is less downy. The flesh is green and contains numerous tiny black seeds, which present no obstacle when being eaten.

Chemical Properties

It is worth noting that the medicinal properties of kiwifruit differs according to the variety that is being used, the age of the fruit, and the conditions under which it is grown. Currently, 80 compounds have been identified and they include:

  • Quinic acid (present in young fruits)
  • Ascorbic acid (present in mature fruits)
  • Actinidin
  • Actinic acid
  • Bromic acid
  • Calcium oxalates
  • Hexanal
  • Hexenol
  • Ethyl butyrate
  • Terpene esters
  • Methyl butanone
  • Hydroxy – butanone
  • Ethyl hydroxybutyrate
  • Phenylethyl alcohol
  • A-linolenic acid (seed)
  • A-terpineol
  • Geraniol
  • Triterpene phytoalexin
  • Arjunolic acid
  • Asiatic acid
  • Hydroxtormentic acid
  • Carotenoids
  • Lutein
  • Xanthine

Triterpene phytoalexin, arjunolic acid, asiatic acid, atinidic acid, and hydroxtormentic acid have been identified as having high antimicrobial action. Actinidin is helpful in supporting digestion, which for those with slow digestion is beneficial. Its high dietary fiber content supports the health of the colon, and helps to balance blood-sugar levels. Known for its antioxidant properties, Kiwifruit helps to protect DNA for deteriorating although the property responsible for this remains unknown to date. The leading producer of Kiwifruit, Italy found that the more kiwifruit children ate, the more their respiratory problems of wheezing, shortness of breath, and nighttime coughing improved.

It high ascorbic acid content adds to the antioxidant qualities of kiwifruit with a power of 73% compared to the 54% of grapefruit, 46% of lemons, and 40% of oranges. The high carotenoid content ( lutein and xanthine)  helps to reduce the risk of age related blindness – macular degeneration, which just happen to be the main carotenoids in the human eye. The A-linolenic acid in the oil from the seeds of the fruit have been found to hydrate the skin and the hair, and as such has been added to cosmetics.

Those with a colon, kidney or gallbladder problem may want to avoid kiwifruits because of its high level of calcium oxalates, which can crystallize in the body preventing absorption of other calcium within the body though the chances of this occurring is minimal. There have also been reports of a range of allergic reactions, which might be related to where and how it was grown. As such, pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid eating cultivars of actinidia chenensis.

The therapeutic qualities include the following: (see It All Makes Good Scents  for definitions)

  • Anti-rheumatic
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-asthmatic
  • Bechic
  • Diuretic (fruit, stems, roots, leaves)
  • Emollient (seeds)
  • Februfuge (fruit, stems, roots, leaves)
  • Sedative (fruit, stems, roots, leaves)
  • Antimicrobial (pulp)
  • Antifungal (pulp)
  • Stomachic

The fruit, stems, roots, and leaves have been used in the treatment of stones in the urinary tract, for rheumatoid arthralgia, cancers of the liver and the oesophagus.  In a study by the Auckland University of Techonology, New Zealand, 42 over 60 year olds with the problem were asked to add kiwifruit to their diet without changing their diet. For 7 of the 42, their daily diet included the taking of laxatives: Mucolax, Lactulose, Isogel, and Codalax, for another two, it was Senokot, and another Normacol once a week. Those who normally ate kiwifruit were asked to not eat kiwifruit for the study. By the end of the study 27 of the participants said they would continue to take kiwifruit because they found that they were able to go more frequently, and with less difficulty, three  could not cope with the quantity of kiwifruit consumed as they experienced increase in flatulence, and joint problems, and four had noticed no difference. Given the nature of their diet in general, and possible allergies, the study was successful.

In China the fruit and the juice of the stalk has been used to expel stones, and traditional Chinese medicine, an extract has been used to nourish, cleanse and purify the body, as a face pack, to stimulate collagen, as a diuretic, and to treat haemorrhoids.  It has also been used to lower cholesterol, to treat coronary heart diseases, jaundice and to redress the lack of appetite!

Nutritional Content

Kiwifruit however, is a bit fussy about being processed. It has been found that it loses color, flavor and becomes an irritant to the throat. It loses color if stored under 18°C. Higher in protein and vitamin C than many fruits, the nutritional properties of kiwifruit include:

  • Ascorbic acid
  • Calcium (fruit)
  • Chromium
  • Copper (trace amount)
  • Folic acid
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Choline
  • Betaine
  • Iron (trace amount)
  • Manganese (trace amount)
  • Magnesium
  • Niacin
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Riboflavin (trace amount)
  • Selenium (trace amount)
  • Sodium
  • Thiamine (trace amount)
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin B₆
  • Vitamin B₁₂
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K
  • Zinc (trace amount)


The fruit we eat of the cultivar Actinidia deliciosa is self fertilizing. It is now grown for the marketplace in Italy (leading producers), Chile, Greece, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, and the U.S. Harvesting in New Zealand is from May – November, In India from October – December, and in France and the U.S. November, but keep well in storage. If the fruit is firm when bought, they can be kept for up to 8 weeks in a room temperature of 65º to 70º F (18.33º-21.11º C), or in a refrigerator for 10 weeks. Kiwifruits (i.e. Actinidia deliciosa ) are sensitive though to the ethylene that is given off from other fruits if stored in close proximity and will begin to deteriorate/ripen more quickly.

To get the best out of kiwifruit, it is best to use as it is, i.e. uncooked added to salads, the morning meal, desserts, and tarts. It does not blend well with yoghurt because the enzymes in the fruit and the yoghurt conflict. It can be used to tenderize meat by rubbing the meat for not more than 10 minutes, but what a waste of fruit! These same enzymes can make other fruits soggy in a fruit salad, so it is wiser to add kiwifruit just before servimg.

The leaves and branches can be boiled as a decoction for treating mange dogs.

In India the flowers are used as an insecticide against aphids and the rice borer.

In balance He gave us everything we needed, but as for what we want!


 “Actinidia Chinensis.” http://server9.web-mania.com/users/pfafardea/database/plants.php?Actinidia+chinensis

“Kiwifruit.” http://www.drugs.com/npp/kiwi-fruit.html

“Kiwifruit.” http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/kiwifruit.html

Lodge, N and Perera, C. “Processing of Kiwifruit.” http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/science/lodge2.htm

Morton, J. “Kiwifruit.” http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/kiwifruit_ars.html

Rush, E et al. “Kiwifruit Promotes Laxation in the Elderly.” Auckland University of Technology. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr (2002) 11(2): 164–168

Singh, A. et al.  “Popularizing Kiwifruit Cultivation in North East.” http://gbpihed.nic.in/envis/HTML/vol16_1/A.%20Singh.htm 


Allah’s Medicine Chest: Lemons

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Garlic

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Oranges

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Almonds

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Shea Butter

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Strawberries (Fragaria vesca)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Dates (Phoenix dactylifera)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Basil (Ocimum Basilicum)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Figs (Ficus Carica)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Pomegranate (Punica Granatum)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Pomegranate (Punica Granatum)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Pomegranate (Punica Granatum)

By Hwaa Irfan

The pomegranate is one fruit that is been placed in a class of its own when it comes to the plant kingdom: Granateae or Punicaceae under the umbrella of Lythraceae.

{In them will be Fruits, and dates, and pomegranates: Then which of the favors of your Lord will you deny?} (Ar-Rahman – 68-69).

The manifold attributes to mankind of the pomegranate is referred to in the Sunnah as follows: 

“…Then the earth would be told to bring forth its fruit and restore its blessing and, as a result thereof, there would grow (such a big) pomegranate that a group of persons would be able to eat that, and seek shelter under its skin…” (Muslims 41: # 7015)

In the Qur’an, pomegranate is included as part of the abundance that sustains us (An-Anaam 6: 99). The drought tolerant, low growing tree is native to Persia. As the oldest known edible fruit, other names for pomegranate in English include: Chinese apple. In Arabic, it’s called rowman, in Armenian, nur, in Bengali, Anar/Bedana, in Cantonese Ngon sehk lau, in German granatapfel, in Greek Rodi, in Indonesia Delima, in Polish Granat,  in Portuguese, Roma, and in Spanish Granada.

The pomegranate is now grown widely in Asia, Mediterranean countries, China, Egypt, Iran, Japan, Morocco, Spain, Turkey, but is mainly exported by Turkey and Spain. This self pollinating fruit, which is also pollinated by insects, grows to about 15 feet in height. Mainly propagated through soft and hardwood cuttings, the buds and shoots are red in color, and the evergreen leaves are thick and glossy, bearing crimson colored flowers, which have been used to produce a red dye. The small tree takes care of itself requiring little pruning, yet, is able to produce without fail many fruits 4 years after planting, and 7 months after flowering. In season from September through to November, the tree requires long hot summers, but is fairly adaptive. The fruit is about the size of an orange with a thick yellow to red colored rind. The pulp is acidic, but holds many seeds.

There are three kinds of pomegranates: sour, which is sometimes used for unripe grape juice, sweet, and very sweet. Fruits that produce hard seeds may not be very good for eating, but they produce more juice. 

Chemical Properties

 From the root to the leaves contain valuable properties including:

  • Punicotannic acid(bark)
  • Gallic acid (bark)
  • Mannite (bark)
  • Pelletierine alkaloid (bark)
  • Methyl-Pelletierine alkaloid(bark)
  • Pseudo-Pelletierine alkaloid (bark)
  • IsoPelletierine alkaloid (bark)
  • N-Methyliopelletierine
  • Ellagitannins
  • Pelargonidin
  • Punicalin
  • Punicalagin
  • Anthocyanins
  • Cyanin
  • Ellagic acid

Pomegranate contains many antioxidant properties like ellagic acid, which is a proven anticarcinogen, and is effective against fibrosis. Ellagic acid is also affective in the suppression of Ultra-violet induced skin pigmentation both orally and topically as proven by the study of Mineka Yoshimura and colleagues. 

At the Kingston University in London, U.K., The rind of the pomegranate has been used to make a powerful ointment that is able to treat the growing problem in hospitals of drug resistant microbes like the bacteria methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus by adding Vitamin C. and metal salts.

Another antioxidant is cyanin, which is responsible for the color of the pomegranate. Cyanins are antricarcinogen, maintain vascular health, are anti-inflammatory. A recent study published by the American Society of Nephrology by an Israelis team Ronit Geron et al, found that patients with kidney disease who drank pomegranate juice three times a week for a year before each dialysis session had reduced inflammation of the kidneys, free radicals were reduced, and were less likely to be hospitalized. The patients also had reduced blood pressure, and fewer cardio-vascular episodes. 

The therapeutic qualities include the following: (see It All Makes Good Scents  for definitions)

  • Anticarcinogen
  • Anthelmintic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Astringent
  • Cordial
  • Demulcent
  • Purgative
  • Vermifuge

The seeds act as a demulcent. The fruit is a mild astringent and refrigerant in some fevers particularly in respect of biliousness. As an astringent it is also affective against diarrhea. The bark has been used to remove tapeworm as an anthelmintic, which results in nausea, and vomiting as a purgative. In India, the rind is used for diarrhea, and chronic dysentry.

Pomegranate juice has been used in the treatment of dyspepsia, and leprosy, and the dried, pulverized flowers have been used to treat bronchitis. In Mexico, a decoction of the flowers has been used as a gargle to treat oral and throat infections. 

In Saudi Arabia, the powdered peel of the pomegranate rind is used to treat burns, and infected cuts and wounds, as a decoction the rind is used for sore throats, stomach aches and indigestion.

Nutritional Content

  • Dietary fiber
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K
  • Thiamin
  • Riboflavin
  • Niacin
  • Folate
  • Choline
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Zinc
  • Selenium
  • Omega-6 fatty acids

The juice of the fruit has become a popular health drink in the U.S. being high in Vitamins C and K, folate, and choline, but most of the nutritional properties are actually in the rind of the fruit.


The fruits are used for desserts in the Middle East – in Syria, it is sprinkled with sugar and rosewater.

Juice provides a cooling drink. Enjoyed as a fruit juice in Iran, the pulp sacs are removed from the fruit, and put through a basket press or quartered then crushed, and then strained for the juice. Sweetened to taste, sodium benzoate might be added to preserve the stored pomegranate juice. In South Carolina, pomegranate jelly is a favorite, which is made by adding 7 x ½ cups of sugar, and 1 bottle of liquid pectin to 4 cups of pomegranate juice.

The tannin, which is a carcinogenic, has been used to cure leather a yellow color in Morocco. 

In balance He gave us everything we needed, but as for what we want!


American Society of Nephrology (2010, November 19). Pomegranate juice reduces damage to tissues, inflammation and infections, study suggests. ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2010/11/101119083126.htm

Hoffman, D. “The Holistic Herbal.” Element Books, U.S.  1988.

“More Medicinal Uses for Pomegranate.” http://www.drugs.com/news/more-medicinal-uses-pomegranate-21597.html

“Pomegranate.” http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/pomegr60.html

“Pomegranate.” http://www.phytochemicals.info/plants/pomegranate.php

“Pomegranate.” http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Puni_gra.html

“Pomegranate, Raw.”  http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/fruits-and-fruit-juices/2038/2

Tous, J and Ferguson, L. “Mediterranean Fruits.” http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1996/V3-416.html#Pomegranate


Allah’s Medicine Chest: Lemons 

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Garlic

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Oranges

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Almonds

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Shea Butter

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Strawberries (Fragaria vesca)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Dates (Phoenix dactylifera)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Basil (Ocimum Basilicum)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Figs (Ficus Carica)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare)

Drugs That Stop Your Brain from Working…

Drugs That Stop Your Brain from Working…

By Hwaa Irfan

I suppose there are a few of us right now who would not mind if their brain could stop working due to having overactive minds. Always thinking about something that always seems to be important to one’s self and nobody else – because “no one” seems to take it just as seriously as you do! But having respite from thinking is something that naturally one would prefer to have under one’s own control, and not as a side effect of a drug taken for something else entirely different – so one is led to believe.

Anticholinergics are the drugs in question here, which one can buy easily over the counter. Anticholinergics are a group of drugs that prevents the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine from working. A neurotransmitter can be in the form of a mineral or a hormone.

Neurotransmitters are essential for the passing on of information required by the body from one nerve/neuron, to another nerve/neuron.

Acetylcholine is a naturally occurring hormone in one’s body, which like all hormones acts as an essential biological messenger that functions throughout one’s body physical.

Acetylcholine is important for passing on needed information to the large skeletal muscles so that they will receive the message to contract. This neurotransmitter is also important to the functioning of the heart muscle and all involuntary functions beyond our direct control like those functions that fall under the jurisdiction of the autonomic nervous system, e.g. digestion; and it is also responsible for stimulating the nerves related to memory.  Anticholinergics prevent the neurotransmitter responsible for what has been described from functioning, and it is also capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier affecting the central nervous system.


One might be taking an anticholinergic to relieve the side effects of other prescribed drugs including antipsychotics/neuroleptics as used in the treatment of certain mental health dis-ease, and movement disorders. Anticholinergics can also be found in sleeping pills, sedatives, anti-inflammatories, and blood thinners.

Anticholinergics include:

–          Atropine, scopolamine, glycopyrrolate, benztropine, trihexyphenidyl.

They include:

Anticholinergics can be found in:

  • Antihistamines


  • Antipsychotics like:

–          Chlorpromazine

–          Clozapine

–          Mesoridazine

–          Olanzapine

–          Quetiapine

–          Thioridazine

–          Antispasmodics

  • Cyclic antidepressants like:

–          Amitriptyline

–          Amoxapine

–          Clomipramine

–          Desipramine

–          Doxepin

–          Imipramine

–          Nortriptyline

–          Protriptyline

They can also be found in nature as well, but not to the level of concentration present in man-made drugs, in foods and herbs like:

  • Amanita pantherina (panther mushroom)
  • Arctium lappa (burdock root)
  • Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)
  • Cestrum nocturnum (night blooming jessamine)
  • Datura suaveolens (angel’s trumpet)
  • Datura stramonium (jimson weed)
  • Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)
  • Lantana camara (red sage)
  • Solanum carolinensis (wild tomato)
  • Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet)
  • Solanum pseudocapsicum (Jerusalem cherry)
  • Solanum tuberosum (potato)

One might not recognize the above names as the brand name differs. The brand names include:

Benadryl – Disipal – Cogentin – Dramamine – Excedrin PM – Kemadrin – Nytol – Sominex -Tylenol PM – Unisom – Paxil – Detrol – Demerol – Elavil.


One might have the following symptoms, which varies according to one’s physiological, emotional and mental sensibilities:

  • Dry mouth
  • Blurred vision
  • Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
  • Urine retention
  • Constipation
  • Confusion

If the above symptoms occur, one should stop taking the drug with the support of a reputable medical practitioner.  This is not the end of it, because if one continues taking drugs over a long period of time that contain anticholinergics then Anticholinergic Syndrome develops. This takes the form of having a negative impact on one’s ability to:

  • Focus
  • React
  • Language skills
  • Ability to recall and narrate the recollection
  • Ability to remember habits

In the U.S. the AAPCC National Poison Data System Annual Report recorded 8,582 cases of overexposure to anticholinergics. Five deaths occurred related toxicity from antihistamines. The symptoms of a severe reaction include:

  • Psychosis
  • Hallucinations
  • Tremors/Seizures
  • Respiratory failure
  • Cardiovascular collapse
  • Comas
  • Death

The United Kingdom Psychiatric Pharmacy Group recommend that those who have glaucoma, or have problems with their liver, heart, stomach, kidneys, or prostrate, and those who wish to become pregnant, who are pregnant, and are breastfeeding should avoid taking anticholinergic drugs.

One has a right to question the medication and/or treatment one is under through a medical practitioner; after all you are the recipient of that medication, not the doctor.  If one is not happy with the medication and/or treatment, first try to get the doctor concerned to explain the reasoning behind the medication and/or treatment until one feels adequately informed, and then go away and make an informed decision – even get a second/third etc., opinion, and then if one wishes to stop taking that particular medication and/or treatment, ask for an alternative or seek a suitable, and reputable alternative! There is such a thing as Iatrogenic Illness, which is an illness induced by the medication and/or treatment that one is placed under by a medical practitioner, so speak up or take someone along with you who is conversant with what you know about your condition, and what you may have discovered, so that they can speak on your behalf!


Bruns, J. J. “Toxicity, Anticholinergic”. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/812644-overview

Related Topics:

Being Driven Insane!

Schizophrenia: The Case for Psycho-Social Treatment

Do You Use Antibiotics Frequently?

What They Didn’t Tell Us About Soya Beans

Your Children and Sleep Deprivation

New Intellectual Property Right Laws Increase Risk of Bad Medicine

Nature Helps Our Brain Connect!

Religion, the State and Our Mental Health

Attention Deficit or Information Overload in Our Children?

The Pill, Our Bodies, and Ourselves

Being Driven Insane!

Being Driven Insane!

By Hwaa Irfan

 With a sieve, there are grains that can pass through, and there are grains that cannot.  Of the grains that do succeed in being of the right type, they have been relegated to become a part of the whole that will serve another’s purpose. Of those grains that do not succeed to become acceptable, they are either relieved at being able to maintain some essence of what they are, or they become wasted. Of that which has been made acceptable, there is no wholesome benefit to the masses, who will instead experience a deterioration in physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being.

There are those who will who will know what is being said. They may never read this, but they will know, and have known for many generations. Regardless of the problem of assimilation being cast as one of poverty and education, they will know the real reason behind the phenomenon of xenophobia in South Africa – just as the disproportionate number of black men in American prisons, just as the disproportionate number of black people, especially men in English mental institutions.  It keeps being swept under the carpet, but the descendents of the African Diaspora are still living it even though it seems to be a figment of the imagination because like the grain, some have succeeded in passing through the sieve, and they in turn learn to despise what they are reminded of every time they look within, they are reminded every time they see a victim of the System.  The victims are not just the descendents of the African Diaspora, but here we will look at what is remains stuck within conferences, seminars, and reports, but remains unchanged, and sincerely addressed.

By the time of the end of the 1970s, it seemed to have been a situation resolving itself, i.e. the situation that any black male (usually young), would be picked up on the basis of whatever is going on in the mind of the arresting officer, which has been officially, and by the enforcement of law been called Suspect Under Suspicion, SUS. The arresting officer(s) could never understand why a black person should feel so offended, and therefore would only see a violent and dangerous person. There has been no history of trust to allay the fears of the black male being arrested, and so without further adieu, without serious questioning, the black male would be thrown into prison, and drugged. The trouble is, in the early days, often family members did not know what had happened, where their son had disappeared to, and when they finally did see their sons, whatever relationship existed before was put asunder by the fact that in that time their son had been reduced to a zombie.

The community was vibrant then, and through the social aspects of the arts: theater, poetry and music, the community educated themselves as to what was going on. As the incidents became an everyday occurrence, members of the community became adept at finding out what the police were up to, and locating missing members of their community, if they were lucky before death in prison occurred. In reality, nothing seems to have changed, with the recent report that black people are 26 times more likely to picked up under SUS, or as it is now called SAS (Stop and Search).

U.S. civil rights activist, Reverend Jesse Jackson was so horrified at the report that he said to the British Guardian daily:

“We’ve gone through this process in our country of ethnic and religious targeting,”

“It resulted in disastrous consequences. Wherever it happens it undermines the moral authority of the democracy. It damages the image of Britain, because Britain is held in high esteem.”

The report that provided the evidence was carried out by the London School of Economics, and the Open Society Justice Initiative that found for every 60 searches carried out on every 1,000 black people, the equivalent was 1.6 for every 1,000 white people, and for every 6.3 searches made for every 1,000 Asian people. The data was compiled from the Ministry of Justice figures for 2008-2009! The problem has not remained as dire as it was in the 1970s, it has escalated from 10.7 for black people, and 2.2 for Asian people. In response to these figures, Jackson is reported to have said to The Guardian:

“It is racial profiling. It’s as fundamental as that. It is based on sight, suspicion and fear. It’s a systematic pattern. In the US it is called driving while black. In Arizona it is called driving while Latino.”

 Jackson said: “People who not long ago were colonized became immigrants, and now they are citizens. It is unfinished business …”

 Yes, it is unfinished business indeed!

 It was only this year that developments in neuroscience demonstrated diminished empathy in a racist, when pain is being inflicted on the object of that racism; and that this diminished empathy does not apply to people for whom there is no preconceived idea.  Carried out in Italy, one of the researchers,

Alessio Avenanti of the Università di Bologna observed:

 “However, racial bias may suppress this empathic reactivity, leading to a dehumanized perception of others’ experience”.

 This probably explains why the kind of institutionalized racism that leads to ongoing incarceration of the descendents of the African Diaspora continues today. The reasons for this goes deeper than “fitting in”, and is one which cannot be explored in this context, it is the repeated experience over a period of time of a society the action of which has created a pathology rooted in the experiences of the past.

 Past Experience

 Told to the Guardian newspaper recently, is the experience that most young descendents of the African Diaspora have “enjoyed” over 3 generations in the U.K. 

“I was wearing smart trousers and a white shirt because I was going to the theatre in the evening and these police officers were looking at me”.

As 18 year old Leemore Marrett Jr. was on his way to a tap-dancing lesson six years ago.

“The next moment they all jumped out of their vehicle, about six or seven of them. They were hurling abuse at me: “What are you looking at? What are you looking at?” I was in shock at their behaviour. I asked them about Section 61, introduced after Stephen Lawrence, which means they have to say why they are stopping me.

“They just said, ‘Get in the van’. I didn’t swear, I didn’t struggle – they dragged me down to the police station where I was held for two hours until my tutor got me out.”

Marrett who is fully employed has been stopped 4 times by police so far in 2010 whilst driving. He has white friends as well as black friends, but SAS only happens on routine basis to his black friends.

“Being stopped has a negative impact, especially when you are innocent and going about your business.

“Often they don’t even give you a reason. It only takes one bad experience for everyone to start keeping their distance from the police,”

“I thought SUS was eradicated in the Eighties – evidently not.”

Marrett was lucky one could say, but it was his knowledge of the experience of Black people in the U.K. that saved, hence why he was able to refer to Section 61. Marrett mentioned Steve Lawrence the inquiry of which acknowledged that institutionalized racism was endemic within the police force, and related public services. Lawrence was an example of the worst case scenario, and that worst case scenario could mean ending physically or mentally dead, and it has not just been confined to the young descendents of the African Diaspora. Of the physical deaths within police custody according to records from 1978:

  • S. Singh Grewal died in police custody in 1979
  • John Eshiett died in prison while awaiting trial in 1979
  • Richard Campbell died of dehydration in a remand center after being force-fed a large quantity of drugs in 1980
  • Leroy Gordon died in police custody in 1980
  • Winston Rose died in a police van on the way to taking Rose to a psychiatric hospital in 1981.
  • Shohik Meah died in police custody in 1981
  • Simeon Collins died 1 day after arrest in 1981
  • Colin Roach died from a gunshot wound in police custody in 1983.
  • James Ruddock died from denial of necessary medication for diabetes and sickle cell anemia in police custody in 1983.
  • James Hall died in police custody in 1985.
  • Cynthia Jarrett died in police custody in 1985
  • Keith Hicks died in prison diagnosed with schizophrenia and epilepsy in prison in 1986
  • Anthony Lloyd Powell diagnosed with schizophrenia died in prison after in injection of modecate in 1986
  • Donald Chambers died in prison in 1986
  • Caiphas Lemard died in police custody from non-dependent drugs in 1986
  • Akhtar Moghul who could not speak English was denied medication for a heart condition died in prison in 1987.
  • Clinton McCurbin died in police custody in 1987.
  • Nenneh Jalloh died in police custody in 1987.
  • Mohammed Parkitt died in police custody in 1987.
  • Terence Brown died in a psychiatric hospital in 1987.
  • Joseph Palombella died in police custody in 1987.
  • Femi Adelaja died in prison from neglected care – had sarcoidosis of the heart.
  • Armando Belonia died from pneumonia in prison in 1988.
  • Bahader Singh died 1 hour after leaving prison in 1998.
  • Oakely Ramsey died in police custody in 1988.
  • Derek Buchanan died from drowning in police custody in 1988.
  • David Bailet died in police custody in 1989.
  • Nicholas Bramble died in police custody in 1989
  • Vincent Graham died in police custody in 1989
  • Edwin Carr died in police custody in 1989
  • Germain Alexander found covered in bruises died in prison in 1989
  • Oliver Price died in police custody in 1990.
  • Vandana Patel died of a stabbing in police custody in 1991.
  • Ian Gordon was shot and died in police custody in 1991.
  • Orvill Blackwood died from a “calming drug” in a psychiatric hospital
  • Omasase Lumumba died from a heart attack in prison in 1991.
  • Arthur Allison died 4 days after arrest in police custody
  • Melita Crawford died while on remand in 1992.
  • Marck Fletcher detained under the Mental Health Act died from a heart attack after receiving a spinal injection in a psychiatric hospital.
  • Munir Yusef Mojothi died from 2 injections of droperidol in a psychiatric hospital
  • Jerome Scott died on the way to a psychiatric hospital after being given 2 injections in police custody.
  • Leon Patterson died in police custody in 1992.
  • Randhir Showpal detained under the Mental Health Act, and died in police custody in 1992.
  • Rupert Marshall died after injected with an anti-psychotic drug in a psychiatric hospital in 1994.
  • Jonathan Weekes died from pneumonia in a psychiatric hospital in 1994.
  • Tyrone Wilson died in police custody in 1994.
  • Oulwashiji Lapite died in police custody in 1994
  • Brian Douglas died in poluce custody in 1994.
  • Denis Stevens died in prison though he was wearing a restraining body belt in 1994
  • Kenneth Severin died in prison in 1995
  • Wayne Douglas died in police custody in 1995.
  • Alton Manning died in prison in 1995
  • Newton White died in a bath in a psychiatric hospital in 1996.
  • Ibrahim Sey died after he was sprayed with CS in police custody in 1996.
  • Ziya Bitirim died in police custody in 1996.
  • Donovan Williams died in police custody in 1996.
  • Dominic Otoo died in prison in 1996.
  • Ahmed El-Gammel died in police custody in 1996.
  • Veron Cowan died in a psychiatric hospital in 1996.
  • George Bosie Davies died in police custody in 1996.
  • Oscar Okoye died in police custody in 1996.
  • Herbery Gabbidon died in police custody in 1997.
  • Ronnine Clarke was found unconscious in prison and died in a hospital in 1997.
  • Abel Mukuna died in a hospital as a result of what took place in prison in 1997.
  • Lytton Shannon died in police custody in 1997.
  • Christopher Alder died in police custody in 1998.
  • David Bennett died in a psychiatric hospital in 1998.
  • Patrick Louis died in police custody in 1998.
  • Roger Sylvester died in police custody in 1999.
  • Robert Allotey died in police custody in 1999.
  • Sarah Thomas (aka Lai Hong Cheng), died in hospital a result of what happened in police custody in 1999.
  • Asif Dad died in police custody in 2000.
  • Sultan Khan was arrested after leaving a mosque, and died in police custody in 2000.
  • Eugene Edigin died in a psychiatric hospital in 2000.
  • Ricky Bishop was in police custody, then taken by the police to a hospital where he died in 2001.
  • Lee Duvall died one day after being in police custody in 2002.
  • Fosta Errol Thompson was shot by police in 2002.
  • Kwame Sasu Wiredu died in police custody in 2002.
  • Stuart Warwick died in prison in 2003.
  • Ertal Hussein died in a psychiatric hospital in 2003.
  • Michael Powell died in police custody in 2003.
  • Paul Yorke died in police custody 2003.

This is by no means a complete list, long as it may seem, but it demonstrates a history.  When it came to highlighting the problem, Professor Sashi Sashidharan Chair of the Government’s Mental Health Task Force faced obstacles. Although a senior psychiatrist, Sashidharan’s report “Inside Outside” was suppressed. The report found that:

  • The issue of ethnicity in mental health was being marginalized in the mental health services 
  • Mentally distressed black people are more likely to be locked away
  • Compulsory admission is higher for black and minority patients than for white people, and that compulsion is demarcated as requiring a greater amount of supervision, control and security.


The report also set up targets and benchmarks for the government to reach. In 2004, The Royal College of Psychiatrists, referred to Belmarsh Prison, which is notorious to say the least. They found that:

  • The nature in which black people were being detained contributed significantly to deteriorating mental health
  • That the nature of the “stay” was undetermined, and compromised access to the law therefore increasing a sense of powerlessness, which in turn increases poor mental health.


It was not until 2005, the first ethic census on 34, 000 inpatients of mental health facilities was carried out by Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, and published by the Health Inspectorate. Not news to the community, it found that black people were three times more likely to be placed in a mental hospital than the rest of the population, are twice as likely to be sent there by the police or the courts, and black people are 50% more likely to be placed in seclusion. This was survey was not in response to a community outcry, but in response to a retired judge’s allegations of institutionalized racism. The judge, Sir John Blofield had chaired the independent inquiry into the death of David Bennett who died in psychiatric care after being held face down by 4 mental health nurses for almost half an hour. From that inquiry it was acknowledged how endemic institutionalized racism is within the National Health Service, NHS, in general, and the mental health services in particular. The first ethnic-based census found that:

  • 9% of mental health inpatients were black/mixed (white-black) origin.
  • Black inpatients were 44% more likely to have been sectioned under the Mental Health Act
  • African Caribbean mean were 29% more likely to have been subjected to physical control.

In May 2010, more information was provided using data from the Mental Health Data demonstrating that 31.8% of users of the mental health services who are patients of inpatient units were detained involuntary, and that 53.8% were black. NGO, Ethnic Health Initiative commented that this is nothing new!


The 2009-10 NHS statistics reveal that 16,622 of their inpatients were forcibly detained in hospitals under the 1983 Mental Health Act. This represents an increase of 3.5% however, the total inpatient population forcibly detained under the said mentioned Mental Health Act is 49,417. Added to this, are those who were placed on Safety Orders, which rose by 40.4% (12,300) for 2008-09 on the year 2005-06. Citizens can be detained in hospital because:

  • Civil detention
  • Court disposal
  • Prison transfers
  • Safety Order

There was an increase in the amount of patients introduced to the mental health services through the “criminal justice system” with 2,191 admitted for 2009-10, the highest in 5 years according to the annual figures of the NHS.

The 2010 amendments/updates of the 1983 Mental Health Act include additions to the uncategorized mental health states as:

  • “Learning Disability not present or not primary reason for using the Act”
  • “Learning Disability primary reason for using the Act”.

When Eugene Edigin was detained under the Mental Health Act in the psychiatric unit at Whittington Hospital in 2001, it was because he exhibited “erratic behavior.” No one apart from his family seemed to be aware that he had diabetes until after his death. In the case of Michael Powell, it was his family who called the police because he was behaving “erratically”. In an increasingly individualized society where people communicate sincerely less and less, means an increased likelihood of exhibiting “erratic behavior,” which seems to qualify one to be diagnosed, judged and sentenced by a system which in itself is mentally imbalance. The antipsychotic drugs used to “calm” patients significantly, which is more likely to be administered to  black people increases the risk of dangerous blood clots, especially the new medications prescribed for schizophrenia and bipolar disease (clinical depression). This has been evidenced by the Nottinghamshire County Teaching Primary Care Trust, and many previous studies. This adds to the problem as evidenced by the Mental Health Act Commission’s report “Risks, Rights, and Recovery” that there is over medication within the mental health system, and that the physical needs of patients were ignored within a system which has a very high mortality rate.

 The team had investigated 25,000 cases of blood clots, where 7.2 million prescriptions were made in 2009 alone.

 Disregarding, health experts, campaigners, and groups, the 2007 Mental Health Act was introduced advocating the new Community Treatment Order, CTO. Of those under the Community Treatment Order (6,237) for 2008, only 1,965 were discharged, which does not represent a good success rate. The Institute of Psychiatry are against CTO’s on the basis of a study commissioned by them looking at 6 countries where CTO’s have not been of benefit. The trouble with CTO as interpreted by the Government, is that one is forced to take the medications prescribed, which might be killing you or preventing any recovery within one’s own community, which increases powerlessness even more so, because one feels there is no hope, and if one does not, then one has to go back into hospital where at least one does not even have to try and get better. This is tantamount to a mental health system that is devoid of the needs of those it professes to serve, or maybe the truth is, is that those they serve have no regard for the needs of the diagnosed mentally ill. This is borne out by the report produced by the Deaths in Custody Forum which has recorded a total of 300 deaths under the Mental Health Act for January – February 2007. 


 As much as health activists, NGOs, and campaigners in the U.K. have tried to get the government to address the problem on a practical level, the reality is that the government will not. It is not just a matter of the mental health system, but the penal system, and the health system that feeds into it. These three systems of institutionalized racism are made up of people that do not appear out of thin air.  Racism cannot be changed by legislation, and even then to change legislation and the affected policies, requires people who are not racist.  The U.K. has the widest racial gap with:

  • Non-Slavs in Moscow 21.8 times more likely to face SAS
  • Arabs in Paris 7 times more likely to face SAS
  • African-Americans and Hispanics in New York 9 times more likely to face SAS. 

Members of the British African-Caribbean communities have struggled long to make a better world, and in that struggle divisions have taken place leaving those who have their eyes on the vision in a less active state. One can resolve individual cases, and find better alternatives which there are, but the system remains fervently in place without recognizing that racism is a mental illness within itself.

What began as a Public Order Act 1994, to cope with serious violence has avalanched out of control with a draft with the Home Office moving for SAS to include the right to stop and search someone based on ethnic origin. What “ethnic origin” is supposed to mean given the makeup of British citizens may reflect why the unwillingness to restructure/dismantle the mental health system and its appendages. 

Launching a campaign, civil rights activist, Reverend Jessie Jackson arrived in the U.K. within days of learning how British African Caribbeans are 26 more likely to be stopped for SAS. Stopwatch is aiming to get the British government to put an end to SAS, but it will be a long fight, as SAS allows for anyone disliked by the government to be put in the criminal justice system.  Stopwatch is backed by scholars, academics, campaigners, the Open Society Justice Initiative which is financed by the billionaire George Soros. 

Enough is enough! 


Alessio Avenanti, Angela Sirigu, and Salvatore M. Aglioti. Racial Bias Reduces Empathic Sensorimotor Resonance with Other-Race Pain. Current Biology, 2010; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.03.071

Athwal, H. “Significant Deterioration to Detainees’ Mental Health”. http://www.irr.org.uk/2004/december/ha000015.html 

Carvel, J. “Black People Three Times as Likely to Be in Mental Hospital”. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2005/dec/07/socialcare.raceintheuk

Grant, D. “Increase in Black People Detained Under the U.S. Mental Health Act”. http://www.voice-online.co.uk/content.php?show=17588 

The Health and Care Information Service. “Inpatients Formally Detained in Hospitals Under the Mental Health Act 1983 and Patients Subject to Supervised Community Treatment, Annual Figures, England 2009/10”.

 Docherty, C. “Racism Claims ‘Suppressed’”. http://icbirmingham.icnetwork.co.uk/0100news/0100localnews/content_objectid=13462867_method=full_siteid=50002_headline=-Racism-claims–suppressed–name_page.html 

Dodd, V. “Jesse Jackson: Britain’s Moral Authority is Undermined By Police Discrimination”. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/oct/17/jesse-jackson-stop-and-search

 IRR. “Factfile: Black Deaths in Custody”. http://www.irr.org.uk/2002/november/ak000006.html

 Samuels. Z. “Alarm at News That Antipsychotics Increase Risks of Blood Clots”.


Townsend, M.Black People are 26 Times More Likely Than Whites to Face Stop and Search”. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/oct/17/stop-and-search-race-figures

 The 2007 Mental Health Act: A matter of life or death for Black Briton http://www.blackmentalhealth.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=257&Itemid=127

Related Topics:

Letter to Self # 28: Those We Ignore

Schizophrenia: The Case for Psycho-Social Treatment

Bullying a Legacy from Our Leaders?

Reliving the Past of Human Experimentation 

 Israelis Stoked the Riot in Silwan

The American Iron Curtain

Bill Gates and Population Control

African-American Women and Childbirth

Mobilization Against Racism and Islamophobia

The Redemption “Songs” of Muslim Youth

Xenophobia on African Shores and Elsewhere 

Religion, the State and Our Mental Health

Partial Victory Over Arizona Immigration Law

The Stolen Generation

Reliving the Past of Human Experimentation

Reliving the Past of Human Experimentation (Guatemala and Tuskegee)

By Hwaa Irfan

One of my favorite proverbs is the one that states: “I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand.” The reason is because this underlies the natural way in which we learn. Today, “I do and I understand” is very much missing from our learning process, whether that process be a secular or religious/spiritual one. Instead we re-invent from what we hear and what we see without any understanding at all. This is why Islam emphasizes the importance that action must follow upon knowledge, because without action there is no understanding in the context of reality that knowledge – it just remains a figment of our imagination, and as we know how dangerous the imagination can be.

We have been witnessing how dangerous the imagination can be since 9/11, verging on the ridiculous, and so it was after WWI and WII with the true enemy being the fear not the unknown. When a horror is committed having transpired from the minds of experts on behalf of a government, when disclosure occurs, a profuse round of apologies ensues and that is it! From the indigenous Americans/Canadians/Australians, and then we here no more of it! How often have I heard Westerners react with a “the past is the past”, but that can only be said by those who have never been forced to suffer for the past because of the nature of that past. If one discovered that a family member had been experimented on, how would one then react? It does not take the experience of being called at 2.00am in the morning to be told by a colleague that one’s father who is in the throes of dying from lung cancer is being experimented on by a renowned international hospital in a manner that will not prevent his death, or improve his condition in anyway whilst alive! In the separation of what is important to one’s self, from what is important to others, do we think we are capable of maintaining that distinction? There may be nothing better than a human guinea pig, but there is always a price to pay, and it will be paid simply because it is a fundamental law of nature until balance is restored.

U.S. Experiments

There is in fact a long list of experiments on non-consenting victims, but here we will only focus on venereal disease, VD, because of the recent findings of the honorable Susan Reverby, professor of women’s studies, and medical historian at Wellesley College, Canada pertaining to injecting Guatemalans with syphilis.

 An anti- SID/VD campaign was launched during WWI because Dr. John Parascandola, discovered that 13% of U.S. draftees had contracted syphilis or gonorrhea.  A VD unit was established within the Public Health Service, PHS, the body responsible for experiments in what has been referred to as the Tuskegee Project/Study, Guatemala and other small scale experiments in between. However, the campaign was not in a manner that we understand the meaning of campaign today, because there was no objective to educate the public. The objective was one of social control which included prevention of prostitution around military camps. The result was 20,000 women were quarantined or imprisoned. It was after WWI that VD became a public health issue under the auspices of Dr. Thomas Parran, head of PHS after WWI. Met with opposition, Parran was obliged to treat it as a moral issue only. 

How it transpired from there one can only tell from the evidence, because in cases, Tuskegee, and Guatemala, what was learnt from one was transferred to the other.


In the U.S., in 1944, attempts were made to “inoculate/infect” inmates of the Terre Haute Federal Penitentiary against gonorrhea, but failed because they did not display any symptoms. In 1953 attempts were made to inoculate inmates of Sing Sing Prison against syphilis the method of which was repeated in Guatemala according to Reverby. Taking place over a two-year period 1946 – 48 under assistant surgeon general, Dr. John C. Cutler of PHS. Cutler was also a main researcher for the Tuskegee experiment, and a huge defender of the experiment who since then moved further afield to India and Africa. The Guatemalan government gave consent, but then Guatemala was owned very much at the time by the United Fruit Company, which controled the railways, electricity, the communication system (telegraph), and 40% of the best land. In Guatemala, doctors were directly involved. Treatment was given for syphilis, and that treatment was penicillin. However, the “volunteers” like those in Tuskegee did not give their consent, and the Guatemalan volunteers did not have syphilis until they were infected by the doctors. Infection was of two kinds, through infected prostitutes, and through specimens of the disease in the form of a vaccine (most vaccines contain the germ that it seeks to cure), from the pre-tumor sores. Reverby comments:

“Exploring why these experiments in Guatemala were so different from those in Alabama provides insight into the ethical concerns of the PHS researchers, the powerful pull of the need for scientific knowledge, and the difficulty of analyzing the inter-relationship and movement of research between what has been called the “imperial periphery” and “metropolitan transformations.”  

Here, Reverby informs us of the history of PHS, in foreign quarantines. PHS coordinated disease control in South/Latin America, countries which in turn sought funding from PHS and Rockefeller to establish “healthcare” in the indigenous parts of the countries. PHS was not alone in this endeavor, Harvard University supplied info about the prevalence of the disease in Guatemala, the National Institute of Health (then a pan-American Sanitary Bureau branch of PHS) provided funding, the Guatemala’s Ministry of Health, the National Army of the Revolution, the National Mental Health Hospital, and the Ministry of Justice were all involved. There were assumptions/racial profiling about the disease: syphilis is common amongst the Latin community, and when Indians/indigenous are infected, it appears in a mild form.

The objective was to see how:

“…fresh infective material to enhance body response to disease…[to understand] superinfection and reinfection.”

Also,  to see how volunteers responded to various treatments/chemicals, and how to prevent syphilis.  The purpose was to see how it good benefit U.S. troops. The “volunteers” were inmates of Guatemala City’s Central Penitentiary. The deal was to allow some prostitutes infected with syphilis and gonorrhea to visit the inmates, a service which was paid for by American taxpayer’s money via PHS. Other prostitutes were previously not infected but were made infected by having a specimen of syphilis put on their cervix before visiting!

The results were not totally as expected as there were no clinical evidence/symptoms of the disease within the inmates. The repeated tests brought about resistance from the inmates. However, the experiment did not stop there, but went on to experimenting on children, but not the consent to give them syphilis. Instead 438 children from the National Orphanage received blood tests. The children were aged 6 – 16, and 3 children tested positive for congenital syphilis! They were treated with penicillin. Conveniently, another 89 children tested positive for syphilis, but unfortunately for PHS, they displayed no clinical symptoms. The experiments did not stop there; they turned to inmates of an asylum. The doctors could not employ prostitutes, so instead they went for injecting them with the bacteria. This was done without their consent, i.e. they thought they were getting some sort of medication/drug. Cutler in his anticipation wrote to a colleague:

“… we are holding our breaths, and we are explaining to the patients and others concerned with but a few key exceptions, that the treatment is a new one utilizing serum followed by penicillin. This double talk keeps me hopping at time”.

 Unlike the communities of India and Africa today who are highly suspicious of any vaccination campaign, the inmates thought nothing of it once they got what they needed which was anti-convulsant drugs for epilepsy, a refrigerator, a projector to provide them with their only entertainment, eating and drinking utensils, and cigarettes as bartering for an inoculation, spinal tap or a clinical observation.

However, the pressure from the U.S. to get results was to no avail, as Cutler failed to get adequate data, which in turn affected future funding. Key PHS researcher concluded that:

”We would be obliged to canvas the South and Central American nations, the Mexican Indians, the Indian tribes in the United States, and finally, the southern negro.”

 Reverby comments:

“The story of the work in Guatemala also confirms that fact about non-infecting in the “Tuskegee” Study, since it shows the difficulty of infecting individuals with syphilis in a scientific project. The lengths that Cutler and his colleagues had to go to give the disease to the inmates of the asylum, prison and army barracks in Guatemala, and then later in less atrocious ways at Sing Sing, provide us with a way to say this is not what happened in Tuskegee”.


It was Reverby’s previous research that led her to the experiment in Guatemala, noting that a doctor involved in the Tuskegee experiment was also involved in Guatemala. 

PHS launched a study into VD in 6 Southern states, states which had large African-American populations. Initially there was some funding, but after two years there was no funding. This was the time of the Great Depression, following the first global economic collapse. PHS moving forward, selected the poor rural of Macon County, Alabama in order to carry out a smaller experiment. Macon County was considered to be a “natural laboratory” where the racial profile of African-American intelligence was believed to be low. Other stereotypes included promiscuity, and ignorance of treatment ignoring that the government did not want to “educate the public,” and that there was only one African-American doctor who could only afford to treat those who could pay in what was after all the Great Depression.

Handbills were distributed in the autumn of 1932, promising treatment for men with “bad blood.” “Bad blood” to an uninformed community meant a wide range of things, not necessarily VD, so of course there were takers in an area where there was little medical care. One volunteer still alive today told PBS:

“The way I heard about it was through a rumor that the people that came out of Macon County, and people said you could get free medicine for yourself and things of that kind, and they would have a meeting at Salmon Chapel at a certain date. And those of us who were eligible, was of a certain age, why, then you had to be a certain age to be eligible to participate in this meeting, therefore I went”.

Other volunteers of the experiment told PBS:

“They say they gonna treat us–they just said bad blood”.

“We got three different types of medicine. A little round pill–sometime a capsule–sometime a little vial of medicine–everybody got the same thing”.

All those who went expecting treatment received blood tests, and of those 399 men had tertiary syphilis, and 201 men served as controls being without the disease. Those with syphilis were not told of their condition or a part of a medical experiment that was to last for 40 years! When WWII arrived PHS was able to prevent the volunteers from being drafted because they did not want the volunteers to discover that they had syphilis, which they would under the obligatory army medical check-up.

Administered from Washington, the face of the medical treatment given was an African-American nurse, Eunice Rivers. Rivers provided free transportation to the clinic, free meals, and free burials. Ironically, the clinic was held in the famous Tuskegee Institute, which was founded by Booker T. Washington for the education of African-Americans freed from slavery. The Institute was federally funded, but the Tuskegee Institute had nothing to do with the experiment. The vial given for treatment was no more than medication for a common cold. When penicillin was discovered in 1947 as a cure for syphilis it was not given to the volunteers.  It was a non-therapeutic experiment the objective of which was to find out the effect of syphilis. Charlayne Hunter-Gault recounts for PBS how Rivers even followed one of the volunteers to Birmingham County to stop him from getting a penicillin shot!

There was no protocol for the experiment as discovered by Associated Press when news broke out via a leak in 1972, and it was in 1972 that work began on investigating the experiment by James H. Jones, author of “Bad Blood”, a doctor who worked with the lawyer who took on Tuskegee cases, exploring medical and official records.

Originally intended to last for 6 months, the study lasted for 40 years, 40 years of collecting data on the living and the dead with syphilis, and 40 years of being discussed in the nation’s top medical journals, reports, conferences and professional meetings. Yet, an intern at the Tuskegee in 1932, Dr. J. W. Williams who helped in the clinical work pertaining to the experiments admitted that neither interns knew what they were studying nor volunteers knew what they were being treated for – the volunteers though they were being treated for a bad stomach or rheumatism. When Dr. Reginald James was signed to public health in Macon County, for the specific purpose of diagnosing and treatment of syphilis, he came up against Eunice Rivers who was assigned to work with him. Rivers role as a PHS employee for the experiment was as a liaison between the researchers and the volunteers. When Williams found one of the volunteers, Rivers would instruct Williams not to treat the volunteer. When Williams insisted on treating the volunteers, they would not turn up. Williams since then discovered that they were instructed that they would lose their medical treatment and all their benefits. The Damocles sword lived right in the midst of Tuskegee, and she was chosen well by PHS to do their dirty work! However, one has to ask the question, how can someone live in the community and do what she has done, and the only reply that comes back is that Rivers must have been under a different impression of her role, and what she was actually doing to others!

Syphillisis a contagious, life threatening disease if not treated. It can be acquired through skin contact or mucous membrane or congenitally transmitted to the fetus of the mother is infected. In the primary stage, the bacteria Treponema pallidum, works its way into the lymphatic system, multiplying as they go working their way into the blood stream. The secondary stage can last months or years, beginning with a rash (maybe fever, headaches and other non-specific symptoms. The bones and joints are painful, and one begins to have palpitations, but after a while, there seems to be a  going into recession. Meaning while, the  Treponema pallidum is working its way into the bone marrow, vital organs, and the central nervous system. In the final stage, the lesions caused by Treponema pallidum within the organs, (including the brain) turns into soft tumors, as well as ulcers on the skin.


In 1972, the first report in the press about Tuskegee was from the reporter Jean Heller, of Associated Press. The furor in the press verged from:

ABC’s Harry Reasoner’s coverage referring to the PHS:

“… only mildly uncomfortable…[with an experiment that] “… used human beings as laboratory animals in a long and inefficient study of how long it takes syphilis to kill someone”.


Editor of the Philadelphia Inquirer:

“That it has happened in this country in our time makes the tragedy more poignant,”


Editor of Providence Sunday Journal:

“… the flagrant immortality of what occurred under the auspices of the United States Government”.


Washington’s Post:

“There is always a lofty goal in the research work of medicine, but too often in the past ot has been the bodies of the poor… on whom the unholy testing is done”

Those who followed the breaking news on Guatemala, echo these same sentiments, but what is there recompense?

Fred Grey, a civil rights attorney took up the cudgel, and took class action suit on behalf of the Tuskegee “volunteers”.  He labor much on the legal and medical records from 1972 – 74, and won them an out of court settlement of $10mn. The government was ordered to provide lifetime healthcare for the “volunteers” as well as some of their relatives, but it was 65 years later, with only 8 surviving members that they got what they really wanted, an official apology.

PRESIDENT CLINTON: The United States Government did something that was wrong, deeply, profoundly, morally wrong. It was an outrage to our commitment to integrity and equality for all our citizens. We can end the silence. We can stop turning our heads away. We can look at you in the eye and finally say on behalf of the American people what the United States Government did was shameful, and I am sorry. (Applause)

On behalf of President Obama, the U.S. Secretary of State and Health (Mrs. Clinton and Health Secretary Kathleen Sebelius) said

“The sexually transmitted disease inoculation study conducted from 1946-1948 in Guatemala was clearly unethical. Although these events occurred more than 64 years ago, we are outraged that such reprehensible research could have occurred under the guise of public health. We deeply regret that it happened, and we apologize to all the individuals who were affected by such abhorrent research practices. The conduct exhibited during the study does not represent the values of the United States, or our commitment to human dignity and great respect for the people of Guatemala. The study is a sad reminder that adequate human subject safeguards did not exist a half-century ago.

“Today, the regulations that govern U.S.-funded human medical research prohibit these kinds of appalling violations. The United States is unwavering in our commitment to ensure that all human medical studies conducted today meet exacting U.S. and international legal and ethical standards. In the spirit of this commitment to ethical research, we are launching a thorough investigation into the specifics of this case from 1946. In addition, through the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues we are also convening a body of international experts to review and report on the most effective methods to ensure that all human medical research conducted around the globe today meets rigorous ethical standards.

“The people of Guatemala are our close friends and neighbors in the Americas. Our countries partner together on a range of issues, and our people are bound together by shared values, commerce, and by the many Guatemalan Americans who enrich our country. As we move forward to better understand this appalling event, we reaffirm the importance of our relationship with Guatemala, and our respect for the Guatemalan people, as well as our commitment to the highest standards of ethics in medical research.”

However, Project Shad was only 10 years ago. Project Shad was a Department of Defense initiative involving 4,000 naval men who were exposed to:

  • Bacillus globigii (BG)
  • Coxiella burnetii [which causes Q fever]
  • Pasteurella tularensis [which causes tularemia or ‘rabbit fever’]
  • Zinc Cadmium Sulfide, Beta-propriolactone
  • Sarin
  • VX
  • Escherichia Coli (EC)
  • Serratia Marcescens (SM)
  • Sodium Hydroxide
  • Peracetic acid
  • Potassium hydroxide
  • Sodium hypochlorite
  • Methylacetoacetate

There were 40 experiments known to the government. Despite all the heart-felt apologies one thing was made clear in the governmental briefing given pertaining to Reverby’s disclosure of what happened in Guatemala involving Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, Arturo Valenzuela, and Dr. Francis Collins, Director of the National Institutes of Health:

QUESTION: I’m from Guatemala. I work at a Guatemalan newspaper. I just want to know, do you think that after the U.S. Government paying for this monstrosity and then eight years later overthrowing a democratically elected president in Guatemala, are we going to get some sort of compensation? I’m not talking about economic or something, but is “sorry” enough for this?

DR. COLLINS: Thanks. Sorry, what newspaper are you with?

QUESTION: Diario des America.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY VALENZUELA: Well, I would just reiterate what I said earlier, and that is that with these two studies that are being commissioned now, we will await the findings and recommendations of those studies before we move forward. And I would caution you not to link the two events that you’re talking about. The one that we’re discussing now occurred in ’46, ’48, and the other one that you just mentioned occurred in ’54, and they’re not linked”.

A government cannot relieve itself of responsibility with just an apology because it has changed Administration otherwise it will be worth nothing to the citizens if one Administration does not learn the lessons of previous Administrations. If ethics are circumstantial, then at any given time, a section of the population can be given up to some form of experiment whether it be health, culture, religion, economics, or self interest/politics. When one talks about building a future for a people that it has taken responsibility for, where does that past begin, and whose past is included?


BBC. US Medical Tests in Guatemala “Crime Against Humanity.” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-11457552

Henry, P. “Bad Science: From Guatemala VD “Research” to CIA-DoD Interrogation Experimentation” http://patrickhenrypress.info/node/290295

Parascandola, J. et al. Epidemics in the United States: Public Policy Responses and the Lessons to be Learned. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?topic_id=116811&fuseaction=topics.event_summary&event_id=144286

“An Apology 65 Years Later.” http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/health/may97/tuskegee_5-16a.html

Jones, J. H. “Bad Blood.” Collier Macmillan Publ. U.K. 1981

Reverby, S.M.   “Normal Exposure” and Inoculation Syphilis: A PHS “Tuskegee” Doctor in

Guatemala, 1946-48 http://www.wellesley.edu/WomenSt/Reverby%20Normal%20Exposure.pdf

U.S. gov. Briefing on the U.S. Public Health Service STD Inoculation Study of 1946-1948 Via Teleconference http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/rm/2010/148546.htm

Washington Post. “U.S. Apologizes for 1940s Syphilis Inoculation Experiment in Guatemala” http://voices.washingtonpost.com/checkup/2010/10/us_apologizes_for_1940s_experi.html

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Xenophobia on African Shores and Elsewhere

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