Tag Archive | sustainability

Iran’s Free Energy Technology

Iran’s Free Energy Technology

Dr M.T. Keshe is head of the Keshe Foundation in Belgium. Keshe’s recent lecture on Jan. 30, 2013 at Imperial College in London, revealed some incredible information about Iran’s space ship program, and also about a Peace Treaty which is currently in the hands of the world’s super powers, as we wait to see how the world’s ‘super-powers’ will react to these new advanced breakthroughs which Keshe himself has stated publicly, have already enabled Iran to apprehend not one, but two US drones.

Other applications include faster than light travel, nuclear gravity-magnetic field plasma free energy reactors and advanced medical treatment for the terminally ill.

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Charging By Solar Energy in Uganda Gets Popular in U.S.

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Reflection on Islam, Liberty and Development IV

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The Sahrawi of Morocco: When Medicine is What is Within Your Hands

The Sahrawi  of Morocco: When Medicine is What is Within Your Hands

By Hwaa Irfan

There is nothing unusual about this, accept that in a nation that has removed that power, that self knowledge so that one becomes unaware of one’s own body, one’s own health needs, and one’s true physiological ecology, one becomes reliant on those who have disempowered you. Many of us will not see it like that until one realizes that the very conditions that one lives under is the reason for one’s state of dis-ease, physically, mentally, and spiritually. That may be the direct consequence of imposed lifestyle choices, or it may be the result of one’s reaction to what has become pervasive.

For the Sahrawi/Sahrauoi people, the years of self determination have been replaced by a struggle with the state, a struggle that many are now finding themselves engulfed in as the very props  that have determined our lives fall away. For the Sahrawi/Sahrauoi, the struggle for independence up until a 1991 cease-fire with Morocco resulted in many fleeing to Algeria, to live in Polisaro Front-run refugee camps, Polisario Front being the rebel group that fought for the independence of their people.

Irish-born photographer Andrew McConnell captured many of the Sahrawi/Sahrauoi on film, like Djimi Elghalia Vice president of the Saharawi Association of Victims of Grave Human Rights Violations Committed by the Moroccan State (ASVDH), now aged 48:

Djimi Elghalia

“My family was among many who fled the climate and social conditions in Western Sahara to look for work in Morocco. A lot of Sahrawi/Sahrauoi used to stay at our home, and because of this, my grandmother was arrested in 1984. She was 60. We never saw her again. In 1986, I moved to El Aaiún for work. The next year, I was arrested along with 500 others for trying to organize a demonstration on independence. They interrogated me and used physical and psychological torture. They would put chemicals in my hair, which made me faint. I was electrocuted on the arms and back and was bitten by dogs. I was released in 1991 along with 324 people, some of whom had been held since the invasion.”

Dada Mohammed Kehel:

“I was born in Smara, [a refugee camp] in the occupied territory [of Western Sahara] in 1955. I remember the valleys and little houses. I felt free there; even the wind smelt of freedom. I used to go to school with Spanish children. The Spanish had everything: cars, diggers. They made roads. When they left, they buried the Sahrawi/Sahrauoi. We felt stabbed in the back. When Morocco invaded, I ran with my family. It was a surprise, because nobody had radios. Some fled on foot and others on camels, but many were caught. I spent a lot of time in the camps. I hated it there, I felt like a tourist of Algeria. So after the cease-fire, I moved to the liberated territory. We are free here and I love it, but there are difficulties.”

The Western Sahara desert or the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) may receive upto 4.5 cm of rain annually. If one knows how extreme the temperatures in the desert can get, then from 60˚C (150 ° F) to freezing at night does not sound unusual. SADR borders the North Atlantic Ocean between Mauritania and Morocco.

Not estranged from their environment like city dwellers, the Sahrawi/Sahrauoi depends on pastoral nomadism, fishing, and phosphate mining as the principal sources of income for the population. However, all trade and other economic activities are controlled by the Moroccan Government. Added to this insult, one that is familiar to a indigenous peoples, the Moroccan Government signed contracts in 2001 for oil to exploration off the coast of Western Sahara.

The Sahrawi/Sahrauoi are semi-nomadic and Berber. Their Arab inheritance can be traced back to the 15th Century when tribes migrated from Yemen across North Africa and settled in Western Sahara.

In SADR, there are four refugee camps on a desert plateau called Hamada, near the Algerian city of Tindouf. A population of 165,000 Sahrawi/Sahrauoi with 20 years of practice live in what has become well organized refugee camps of canvas tents and mud brick huts.

Democracy is innately a part of their culture in that no single tribe has power over others, and all are represented in an overall governing body. Peaceful solutions are friendly way or by compensation through Islamic law. However, intrinsic to Arabism is racism, so the darker skinned members are not treated the same.

Over the years, they have improved their quality of life by developing an informal economy that includes marketing of many products through trade routes with Senegal, Mali, Mauritania, Algeria, and Spain. Some of  those products are traditional ethnobiological, which have helped to maintain their medicinal traditions.

Acacia ehrenbergiana of the plant family Fabaceae are used to treat eye infections and conjunctivitis. The leaves are dried, powdered and tAcacia ehrenbergiana riturated for wounds, and the resin known as el elk tamat is used for eye problems.

Anastatica hierochuntica of the Brassicaceae plant family is used in the treatment of vitiligo/white spots on the skin, mycotic skin infections, particularly the hands and nails. The aerial parts are dried, triturated, and boiled in water, and it is used as a topical application. When cooled and dried, the plant material is triturated and mixed with water to form a plaster for the treatment.

Argania spinosa of the Sapotaceae plant family is used to strengthen the hair and against aging.  The bulez oil is extracted from the seeds and applied as a cream.

Balanites aegyptiaca  of the Balanitaceae plant family is used as a mouth wash for the treatment of mouth and skin infections -mycosis, and spots. The fruit is roasted and peeled for its oil which is applied to the skin. The ashes from the burnt fruit are mixed with the oil and applied topically as a mouth wash, with the infusion of the peel and leaves.

Beta patellaris of the Chenopodiaceae plant family is used to treat otitis/ear infection in children by extracting the oil from the seeds.

Caylusea hexagyna of the Resedaceae plant family is used to perfume the hair, to treat lice, and as a dressing which stays on the hair for 24 hours to treat hair loss and to stimulate hair growth.  Fresh aerial parts are pounded, to extract the juice, which is then mixed with oil/fat.

Commiphora africana of the Burseraceae plant family is used to clean the teeth, as an antiseptic for wounds and skin infections, and as a smudge for protection against the evil eye.  The stems and resin are used triturated.

Mesembryanthemum cryptanthum of the Aizoaceae plant family is used as soap.  The  green aerial parts are pounded and then mixed with water.

Pergularia tomentosa of the Asclepiadaceae plant family is used in the treatment of  snakebites, scorpion stings, and boils. The leaves are dried, triturated and mixed with water and applied topically. The resin is used to get rid of warts.

Red hematite/ochre  is applied topically to reduce solar radiation into eyes, for cataract, conjunctivitis, abscesses, bone fractures and wounds.

These are but a few of the natural remedies the Sahrawi/Sahrauoi use.  What do you have in your kitchen cupboard that is not irradiated, processed or modified genetically that has a medicinal function?

Sources:

Macdonald, K. “A Light on the People of Western Sahara.” lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/04/15/a-light-on-the-people-of-western-sahara/

Volpato, G., Kourková, P., Zelený, V., “Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara.” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2012, 8:49 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-8-49

Related Topics:

Allah’s Medicine Chest

It Makes Good Scents

Behind the Masks of the Feminine

Quinoa: The Health Fad that is Starving the Cultivators

The Yanomami and the Yew Tree That Fights Cancer

Unemployed Coal Miners Creating their New Sustainable Reality with Solar Panels*

Unemployed Coal Miners Creating their New Sustainable Reality with Solar Panels*

 

A group devoted to creating alternative energy jobs in Central Appalachia is building a first for West Virginia’s southern coalfields region this week – a set of rooftop solar panels, assembled by unemployed and underemployed coal miners and contractors.

The 40- by 15-foot solar array going up on a doctor’s office in Williamson is significant not for its size but for its location: It signals to an area long reliant on mining that there can be life beyond coal.

People were skeptical when the idea was first floated about a year ago, says Nick Getzen, spokesman for The Jobs Project, which is trying to create renewable energy job opportunities in West Virginia and Kentucky. In the southern coalfields, he says, people have only ever gotten electricity one way – from coal-fired power plants.

“This is the first sign for a lot of folks that this is real, and that it’s real technology, and they can have it in their communities,” Getzen says.

“In no way are we against coal or trying to replace coal. There’s still going to be coal mining here. This is just something else to help the economy.”

The Jobs Project teamed up about a year ago with a solar energy company from the Eastern Panhandle, Mountain View Solar & Wind of Berkeley Springs, to develop a privately funded job-training program. The 12 trainees are earning $45 an hour for three days of work, while some local labourers are earning $10 an hour helping out.

Mountain View owner Mike McKechnie is also buying all his electrical supplies from a local business.

“We are not funded by any state organization. We’re doing this as a business because we want to grow the solar infrastructure and industry,” McKechnie says.

“We’re West Virginians, and we think it’s important. There’s a need here that’s not being met.”

Demand for solar energy has been growing in West Virginia, and McKechnie’s company has been expanding with it. Mountain View has tripled in size two years in a row and is likely to do the same in 2011. It now employs 15 full-time workers, five part-timers and a network of about a dozen electricians, plumbers, roofers and general contractors who do installations when McKechnie calls.

“This training model we’re unleashing in Williamson is something we’ve proven,” McKechnie says. “It’s not a pilot project. It’s something we’ve shown works.”

Besides installing the rooftop array, the trainees and three of McKechnie’s employees will also be doing assessments on seven other properties this week.

“What we’re doing is giving them a crash course. They get an introduction, and if they want to continue, then that’s who we’ll call in the future,” he says.

If they like the work, they’ll follow up with additional training in the Eastern Panhandle “to get them to a certain calibre, and then they’ll continue their training as we start to do work down there,” McKechnie says.

“We’re hoping they will go out on their own and find some sales leads and close those sales. We want to develop the entrepreneurial spirit so eventually they can go out on their own.”

McKechnie says he’s not worried about creating competitors because there’s plenty of work to go around.

“The public wants it and they can’t find it,” he says.

McKechnie uses only American-made solar panels, and representatives of his supplier, Oregon-based Solar World USA, are expected to be in Williamson on Thursday for the public unveiling of the project.

“We’re impressed with the focused enthusiasm and boldness of Mountain View Solar and Wind, and its partnership with The Jobs Project to spread the economic activity and financial savings of solar, and we want to do whatever we can to support and enhance the effort,” Solar World USA spokesman Ben Santarris said.

The rooftop array on the doctor’s office cost about $90,000 and McKechnie says it will produce 11.7 kilowatts of electricity, or enough to reduce utility costs by about 20 percent. The system should pay for itself in about seven years.

Getzen acknowledges many people can’t afford such an investment.

“It’s going to take a little while to get going,” he says.

But The Jobs Project is trying to figure out how to do projects without upfront capital. Already, he says, federal tax credits and grants from the U.S. Department of Agriculture can help reduce costs, and people can seek low-interest loans.

“I just hope that through this project,” Getzen says, “we find many more.

Source*

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Bolivia: The Moral Light Shines on Land and People

Bolivia: The Moral Light Shines on Land and People

By Hwaa Irfan

While the rest of the world struggles to maintain power, self interest and dominion of a way of life that has caused more loss than gain for most Bolivia is going against the grain by committing itself to the higher Laws of Nature. Unprecedented in these times, from the point of view of the modern State, after much debate and deliberation with politicians and grassroots social groups, Bolivia which has suffered much including vilification by the U.K., and the U.S., for its courageous president Evo Morales stance on climate change, will be the first modern State or even the first State to pioneer and install the first Law of Mother Earth, equalling the rights of nature to human rights. This Law, the Law of God, will completely restructure the entire legal framework of Bolivia.

A country that is seen as the poorest and least developed in the eyes of materialists, Bolivia or the Plurinational State of Bolivia as it is officially known has been a country that has suffered serious environmental problems due to the richness of its natural resources, from mining of gold, silver, tin, hydrocarbons, and natural gas. And has also been suffering from rising temperatures, extreme weather conditions, and water security issues.

Learning from experience, instead of ignoring the lessons that life presents as if on a suicide mission instead of continuing along the current downward curve of viewing the world, whereby Bolivia within the next 100 years could become a desert according to glaciologist Edson Ramirez of San Andres University as the ice cap melts, in recognition that current laws are not strong enough to make industry transparent.

The Greater Significance

To those who do not recognize the greater significance of this step other than as an environmental issue, let’s look at it in an everyday context.

Having worked with those designated as ‘schizophrenic’ thus relegated as mentally ill I have grown too see that their world is a higher metaphysical order of reality, one that a secular society expects them to deny as ordinary, unqualified citizens a reality that demands the kind of attention for a while in order to resolve the conflict of duality that is endemic in secular societies. It is this reaction that has set into motion a split as society demands of them to think and behave in a prescribed way, and it is this stressor that pushes them further into a conflict as society looks at them as if there is something seriously wrong. The result, is that many of the “symptoms designated to schizophrenics are actually reactions to the way in which society treats them socially and clinically. This is the reality of many phases of life relegated to the category of mental illness, and one that in these times there is more and more people who are being prevented from processing their experiences in a natural way and thus relegated as ‘mentally ill’.

Secular society has great problems allowing those relegated to being ‘mentally ill’ because secular society does not recognize that the problem is not the ‘mentally ill’ but secular society itself, which is nurtured on the notion of separation. It is the first and last thing we learn when we are schooled in secular societies that each subject is world unto itself. This not only divides and separates the way we look at the world, but also divides and separates the way in which we look at ourselves and thus all relations in the home, in work, and in public. It is this exclusive notion that has the incapacity to include the ‘other’. If it did include the ‘other’ there would be no ‘other’ and instead of fighting for human rights, civil rights, the rights of the child, women’s rights, and activism in all forms, especially environmental there would be no fight and no international elite to exploit position over the rights of others including the earth.

To Recognize the Land One Has to Recognize the People

This process began in 2006 under the Morales Administration. It took the form of a new constitution that recognized the rights of the indigenous peoples of Bolivia. This was a promise that indigenous Aymaran Juan Evo Morales Ayma was standing by, and to see it through there were some hoops to jump. One major hoop was the necessity for a two-thirds majority vote. This was not forthcoming as one can imagine. Protests ensued, with difficulty in assembling the government due to the opposition. It was not until November 2007 a constitutional draft was approved recognizing it is multiethnic population of Amerindians, Africans, Asians, Europeans and Mestizos as follows in the preamble to the Constitution:

Preamble

“The Bolivian people, with its plural composition, expressed in the entirety of Bolivians, pertaining to urban communities made up of different social classes and the indigenous peoples, originario nations, campesino, and intercultural and Afro-Bolivian peoples, have manifested their will to reconstruct the identities of the indigenous nations and peoples whose historic and cultural pre-existence has suffered from a permanent exclusion during colonial and republican life, having had ignored their rights to ancestral territories, institutions, judicial systems, politics, languages and culture.

On the other side, the economic and social inequalities have deepened the differences and social injustices, institutionalising a political and judicial system which has excluded the great majority.

Because of this, the valiant Bolivian people have conformed a Constituent Assembly to which it has given the mandate to “refound Bolivia” and construct a state based on the principals of sovereignty, dignity, complementarity, solidarity, harmony and equality in distribution and redistribution of the social product, where the common good predominates in the search to “live well; of respect for economic, social, judicial, political and cultural diversity of all its inhabitants; generating collective well being, with healthcare, work, education and housing for all.

A plurinational, communitarian state which integrates and articulates itself within the objective of constructing a Great Latin American Community and which is a spokesperson and inspirer for peace and integral, harmonic development and the self-determination of our peoples..”.

The Law of Mother Earth

The draft of the new law states:

“She is sacred, fertile and the source of life that feeds and cares for all living beings in her womb. She is in permanent balance, harmony and communication with the cosmos. She is comprised of all ecosystems and living beings, and their self-organisation.”

John Vidal adds:

–        The right to life and to exist;

–        The right to continue vital cycles and processes free from human alteration;

–        The right to pure water and clean air;

–        The right to balance;

–        The right not to be polluted; and

–        The right to not have cellular structure modified or genetically altered.

–        The right of nature “to not be affected by mega-infrastructure and development projects that affect the balance of ecosystems and the local inhabitant communities”.

Bolivian Foreign Minister David Choquehuanca said:

“Our grandparents taught us that we belong to a big family of plants and animals. We believe that everything in the planet forms part of a big family. We indigenous people can contribute to solving the energy, climate, food and financial crises with our values.”

This notion might sound like a romantic ideal, but if one compares the short period since the Industrials Revolution until now with the time period prior to the Industrial Revolution and include the number of global crises that we as humanity face today.

The Law of Mother Earth is about sustainability on a mental, emotional, physical, spiritual and environmental level for all levels are interdependent. How we treat the earth is how we treat ourselves and each other. We are meant to be stewards of the earth, just as Islam tells us that we are meant to be guardians. The growing global mental health crises facing humanity today is a result of fragmentation of our lives: schizophrenia, and all the personality disorders are about the way in which we force ourselves to fragment our lives into separate compartments, and depression is about the loss of control of one’s life – there is nothing genetic about it! This modus operandus is the legacy of secularism which separates man and woman from their souls, and the earth from the cosmos. The door to transcending the self to a greater reality was closed as the State increasingly demands control over all aspects of our lives from what we where, eat, think, and work as. In the words of  Arnoldo Carlos Vento:

“In Aztec metaphysics, Tloke-Nauake is a primordial force that “has all the cosmic power within” and with reference to humankind on this planet, it is the force that bonds all humanity. Since the pre-Columbian man/woman understood his tie with his fellowman/woman and understood that all living things within nature are sacred, they developed a society that communally shared the fruits of Mother Earth and man’s artistic and creative expressions in society. While there was immediate ownership of clothes, house, lot, tools, ownership of Mother Earth was unthinkable. Thus, it was not right to own land, people or animals. All beings on earth are linked to one another and they must share and live harmoniously. Consequently, any Western or European reference to private property, economic exploitation, tribute, slavery, usurpation of lands, economic and social classes based on economy and power are the characteristics of the Western paradigm and are totally inappropriate in the pre-Columbian world. The inherited knowledge and wisdom in astronomy, mathematics, botany, engineering, etc. gave the pre-Columbian cultures a scientific understanding of the universe.”

{There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you} (Al Anam 6:38).

Sources:

Achtenberg, E. “Bolivia: Reclaiming Natural Resources and Popular Sovereignty.”

Vidal, J. “Bolivia Enshrines Natural World’s Rights with Equal Status for Mother Earth.” http://pambazuka.org/en/category/advocacy/72594

Vento, A. C. “Rediscovering the Sacred: From the Secular to a Post-Modern Sense of the Sacred.” University of Texas-Austin

Related Topics:

The Earth Keepers

Will the Climate Talks Be Hot Enough

G20 Reasons Why Your Fortune is Not Your Own!

After Cancun: Fair Trade for Africa!?

Eating Away at Our Earth Pt2.

All Things Are Linked!

Earth Grab: No to a Biomass Economy

Disappearing Bees and Our Food Chain

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Acai Berries (Euterpe oleracea)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Acai Berries (Euterpe oleracea)

By Hwaa Irfan

Touted as the wonder drink at the beginning of the 21st century, the magic bullet mentally of the quick fix to health as turned the Acai berry into the biodynamic superfood advancing commercial exploitation of the environment in which it is grown as the latest weight loss fad. As the quick fix superfood, Acai Berries, the poor man’s drink of South America, has become the rich man’s health drink of the U.S. Acai juice entered the Western market in the 1990s making marketers richer, and may have well impoverished the Amazon without thorough testing of the benefits of Acai Berries. Some of the drinks made from Acai berries, is made from a concentrate that has been subject to pasteurization, of which we are familiar with when it comes to milk, and the lost benefits. Heavily marketed, reprocessed and packaged as the health drink, freeze-dried powder, powdered juice extracts, capsules and pills, and fattening energy bars, a lot of health solutions have been promised to the consumers.

Euterpe oleracea has been under the guardianship of the indigenous peoples of the Amazon whose rights have been seriously neglected. When once there were 10 million indigenous peoples, now there are less than 200,000. The rainforest from which it comes from represents 6% of the global rainforests, when once it used to be 14% due its commercial benefits. At a rate of 137 species from the plant, animal and insect kingdom a day is being lost, and when one considers the benefit of Acai berries, what more will be lost to humankind (25% of Western pharmaceuticals is derived from these rainforests, and 74% of plant-derived compounds in current use globally comes from research based on the ethnobotanical knowledge of indigenous peoples)  in the form of food, and medicines when through unsustainable practices including the advancement of biofuels.

Pronounced “a-segh-ee”, Acai is derived from the indigenous Tupian word “wasa’I”, which in English means  “fruit that expels water.” The tree Euterpe oleracea has many practical and medicinal uses from the heart of the palm as a staple food in indigenous Brazil to the bark, and the berries of the tree. Known locally as Assai Palm. Amazonian Palm, Cabbage Palm, cansin, Palisade Palm, and naidi (Columbia).

Euterpe belongs to over 25 species of the palm family, the Arecaceae . Tall and slender, Euterpe oleracea grows up to 25m thriving in the seasonal flooded areas where the soil is waterlogged for months. The palm leaves are ornamental having a distinct shape produce up to eight bunches of fruit throughout the year being heaviest in the dry season July – December, and each tree produces 24kg of berries. The flowers which are small and can be male or female are brown to purple in color. The fruit are the grape-like berries which are smaller, round and blackish-purple in color. The berries grow in bunches containing big seeds turning from green to blackish purple. The berry is protected by a greasy skin, which provides Acai essential oil.

Loved by birds and rodents alike, the seeds of the berry from their droppings helps to propagate Euterpe oleracea.The Acai berry perishes within 24 hours once picked, so outside of its native environment  the berries are only available as frozen pulp or as a juice. The palm heart (from the whitish immature leaves of the palm frond is a staple food to the economically disadvantaged of its native land, which has become popular and thus a commodity which is imported mostly by France, Italy,  Japan, the Netherlands, and the U.S. Unfortunately, without proper management, using the palm heart could qualify Euterpe oleracea as an endangered species as entire groves are felled for the palm heart.

Chemical Properties

It is worth noting that more research is needed to discover all the constituents – an oversight of those who promote Acai berry juice and supplements as a wonderfood. Because the berries deteriorate soon after harvesting only the freeze dried products and supplements are available currently outside of its native home of Central and South America. It has been found that some of the properties of the berry is present in the freeze dried version.

  • Anthocyanins (present powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Proanthicyandins (present powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Homoorientin (present powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Orientin (present powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Isovitexin (present powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Scoparin (present powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Taxifolin deoxyhexose (present in powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Resveratrol ( low in powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Oleic acid (present in powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Palmitic acid (present in powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • B-sitosterol (present in powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Campesterol (present in powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Sigmasterol (present in powdered freeze-dried pulp)
  • Glutathione
  • Phytosterols
  • Catechin
  • Epi-catechin
  • P-hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Vanillic acid
  • Ferulic acid
  • Stearic acid

The berry is rich in antioxidants (10+ times that of grapes), which prevents cell deterioration, and with the fad of holding back the natural process of aging in the West, antioxidants are considered a pro-youth nutrient. Acai berries are richer in protein than an egg, which makes a nice healthy alternative for vegans being rich in dietary fibers.  An extract of the peeled berry was found to prevent dysuria in the case of enlarged prostrate by taking 2 tablets (at 80mg each) a day for 1 month.  A study published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry by Del Pozo-Insfran demonstrated that the polyphenols in Acai caused cell-death of human leukemia cells.

Anthocyanin, meaning blue plants is responsible for the blue, red, and purple colors in plants. Anthocyanins are powerful antioxidant flavanoids , which help protect cell deterioration as a result of oxidated relates stress or free radicals, which is argued speeds up the aging process.  However, how much anthocyanin is present in the freeze dried pulp remains unconfirmed as anthocyanin is highly unstable, degrades easily in the presence of heat/humidity, and when in the presence of enzymes of other chemicals. This process of degradation changes the color and the taste even when refrigerated for 12 hours.

However, when it comes to weight loss, there are few research studies that can testify to that!

  • Alterative
  • Astringent
  • Antibacterial
  • Antiflammatory
  • Antifungal
  • Anti-mutagenic
  • Antioxidant
  • Cytophylactic
  • Nutrient

The therapeutic qualities include the following: (see It All Makes Good Scents for definitions)

  • Antibiotic
  • Antipyretic
  • Antisudorific
  • Cordial
  • Essential Oil
  • Febrifuge
  • Haemostatic
  • Tonic

As a cytophylactic, fresh Acai berries stimulates skin cell growth, and is used  in seborrheic dermatitis, acne, wrinkles, dandruff, skin irritation eczema, burns, and fungal infections. Among the indigenous Warao and Arawak of Guyana, the sap from the stem of Euterpe oleracea is used as haemostatic, to stop bleeding when a person is injured deep in the forest, and an extract from the seed is used as a vasodilator. In Brazil the oil of the berry is used to treat diarrhea, malaria, diabetes, hepatitis, jaundice  hair loss, hemorrhages, liver and kidney disease, and menstrual pain. When eaten fresh, the berries lowers bad cholesterol, and increases bad cholesterol. It is a tonic to the immune system, the heart, controls prostate enlargement, helps to fight infection, and helps to fight schistosmosis. As an antibiotic, the berry has been found to be effective against the hospital infection staphylococcus aureus.

Nutritional Content

Acai berries are considered to be highly nutritious being highly concentrated in antioxidants and flavanoids.

  • Calcium
  • Copper
  • Dietary fiber
  • Iron
  • Manganese
  • Potassium
  • Phosphorus
  • Omega 6 (Linoleic acid)
  • Omega 9
  • Niacin
  • Riboflavin
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin B¹
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Coenzyme Q10

Recipes

In South and Central America, the leaves have been used to thatch roofs, make brooms, baskets, mats, and hats, while the tree trunk has been used to build homes. Acai berries have been a staple food of the indigenous Brazilian diet whereby the oil from the ripe acai berry is used to stay diarrhea in the young. The shredded peel of the berry has been used to make a rinse for skin ulcers. As a desert, the berries have been served with ice cream in Brazil, mixed with granola, and with tapioca. Being a versatile fruit, salt or sugar/honey can be added to make it savory or sweet.

In Peru, the seeds of the berry are grounded and toasted as a food with a practical twist for the purpose of fevers. Boiled into a decoction, the root is used for malaria, hepatitis, jaundice, hair loss, liver and kidney diseases, menstrual and muscular pains.

Along the banks of the Amazon River, the juice from the berries provide a refreshing fruit juice, by softening the skin, and squeezing the berries until the purple juice is extracted, whereas in Brazil the ripe berries are soaked in water to render the juice. In the Amazon, only the roots are considered medicinal in the form of a decoction of which, 1 – 2 cups are taken daily.

In balance He gave us everything we needed, but as for what we want!

Sources:

“Acai.” http://www.drugs.com/npp/acai.html

“Acai.” http://www.phytochemicals.info/plants/acai.php

“Acai Palm.” http://www.paradiseearth.com/Plant%20Articles/Acai%20Palm.html

King, S. R. “The Source of Our Cures: A New Pharmaceutical Company Wants to Provide Reciprocal Benefits and Recognize the Value of Indigenous.”http://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/none/source-our-cures-new-pharmaceutical-company-wants-prov

“Organic Health Report – Acai Supplement Benefits for Health and Longevity.” http://www.health-report.co.uk/acai.htm

Schauss, A. G, et al. “Phytochemical and Nutrient Composition of the Freeze-Dried Amazonian Palm Berry, Euterpem oleraceae Mart (Acai).” J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54 (22), pp 8598–8603 DOI: 10.1021/jf060976g. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf060976g

Taylor, L. “Acai,” http://www.rain-tree.com/acai.htm

Sosnowska, J et al. “American Palm Ethnomedicine: A Meta Analysis.” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2009, 5:43 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-5-43 http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/5/1/43

Series:

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Lemons

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Garlic

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Oranges

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Almonds

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Shea Butter

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Strawberries (Fragaria vesca)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Dates (Phoenix dactylifera)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Basil (Ocimum Basilicum)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Figs (Ficus Carica)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Pomegranate (Punica Granatum)

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)

Powered By the Sun

Powered By the Sun

By Hwaa Irfan

The Qur’an tells us:

{He hath constrained the night and the day and the sun and the moon to be of service unto you…} (Al-Yusuf 12: 13)

While we seek to use up other natural resources to the detriment of the ecosystems that sustain us, nowhere is the service of the sun more evident than in the case of solar energy. In fact, in the Middle East in particular, where hot days are many, the sun presents the ideal sustainable energy source of the future. For those who argue that the sun is dying with no knowledge of its future, if they could predict the death of the sun, then it would logically follow that life on earth as we know it would come to an end, for all creation, all ecosystems of the earth depends on the sun.

The manner in which the sun provides energy to the earth and the non-polluting nature of that energy are key factors in providing sustainable energy. In fact, it is the source energy supply of the fossil fuels that we have been burning up since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution to the detriment of the health of the earth, and all life.

In July 2010, a record-breaking pilotless plane broke the world record for the longest time in the air (two weeks) was totally solar powered. Ratified by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale, the 50kg plane stayed airborne for 14 days, 22 minutes, and seconds. Built by defense technology company Qinetiq, ignoring the purpose for which the plane was built, the solar powered panels of the plane had lithium batteries, which stored the energy allowing for the plane to remain airborne at night! This technology should be redirected to civilian use, powering homes, industries and transport!

The amount of solar energy from the sun’s radiation on just one kilometer square is about 4,000 megawatts – enough to light a small town. In the report “Solar Lighting for the Base of the Pyramid” by Lighting Africa sponsored by the World Bank, and International Finance Corporation is broaching the idea of solar energy for Africa. Unfortunately there are cultural overtones when one states that 140 million African people living without regular or reliable access to electricity.

When one uses the day and the nights as our Creator intended, there is no need to upset our circadian rhythm by not functioning according to the rhythms of nature. When the sun sets, the pineal gland shifts gear and produces its primary hormone melatonin in larger quantities until it peaks from 2 – 3.00a.m in the morning.  The circadian rhythm sets the biological clocks, turns on the immune system and inhibits tumor promoters like estrogen. Studies indicate that even the most modest exposure to extended light stresses our bodies, accelerates aging and debilitates the immune and nervous systems. So when attempts are being made to change the lifestyle of a people in line with the globalized trend of pushing back the hours, one should not accept an unsustainable way of doing things, using sustainable means. However, when the intention is as follows one prays that it will be taken with such intent. Programming Manager for Lighting Africa Arthur Itotia told SciDev:

“By converting from kerosene to clean energy millions of consumers can improve their health, reduce their spending on expensive fuels and, ultimately, benefit from better illumination and more productive time in their homes, schools and businesses.”

As Lighting Africa helps to build the market for off-grid lighting across sub-Saharan Africa, it becomes apparent that the focus is in terms of business, as intrinsic to the initiative is consumer education, and improving access to finance. If the intent was pure, the focus would be about building a solar powered grid for homes, places of learning and industry. The marketing side would then take care of itself, as who would not want to have a less costly energy supply, and one that can be put in the hands of the consumer. Alas, the aim is to use Africa as one of the world’s largest markets for portable solar lighting, instead of helping Africa to provide its own supply of sustainable energy.

Meanwhile, coal dependent South Africa is setting up a solar power station with the aim to supply an annual output of 5 gigawatts of electricity i.e. 1/10th of its energy requirements. When apartheid finally ended only 40% of households had electricity compared to the 83% who are now connected. Looking for foreign as well as domestic investment, the plan for the solar park is being designed by Fluor, a U.S. engineering and construction company to be located where it hardly rains in the poorest province of the Northern Cape.

Shell Petroleum predicted as far back as 1995 that by 2050 that solar power would become our main source of electricity. The World Solar Program from 1996 – 2000 has been trying to coordinate efforts such as the Arab Solar Energy Programs of Morocco, and Oman via the Clean Energy Fund, promoting the unfortunate role of banks in financing renewable energy sources.

The American Whitehouse began converting years ago when it was more expensive. Former president Jimmy Carter spent $30,000 in the 1970s on a solar water heating system for the West Wing. Former George W. Bush the elder, installed a solar powered maintenance system, which also heated the water for the pool. Now President Barack Obama will install solar panels on the roof of the living quarters with the aim of heating water, and supplying some electricity

A Solar Powered Home

Not everyone has the opportunity to solar power their homes, because of the issue of ownership, but when certain developed countries are increasingly experiencing the problem of power cuts do to demand outweighing supply, then those who have the option should consider solar powering one’s homes as a viable direction to go in. Imagine, the long term prospect of not having to pay exorbitant electricity/gas bills. It also means with the unreliability of the job market, that one has less bill to worry about.

In Yorkshire, England, A Shade Greener, which fits solar panels to homes, has had a push with government backing to help people solarize their homes for little cost. As such the business has expanded enabling them to increase their workforce, which in times of an economic meltdown, is beneficial all round.  By helping those who can make that choice, frees up the grid for those who cannot.

In Australia, where it is not uncommon to off the grid, there is a connection system for those whose homes are powered by solar energy without the need for batteries. If one has excess energy, the system allows for energy to flow into the grid, and if you are lacking or on need of more in energy, one is able to draw on the grid. With growing eco-communities with lots of experience, sharing the ups, downs and lessons helps the newcomer to link up with alternative ways of living. For instance:

–        To make sure one is not being short-changed when buying solar panels, there should be two types of warranty:  a) Power output (lasts 20 – 30 years), and a Material Warranty (lasts 2 – 10 years)

–        Look out for get out clauses

–        Position of the solar panels if one does not have a roof that slants at an angle of 30°

–        Obstacles that would prevent the solar panels from getting sunlight

–        If one is connecting to a grid, make sure it is not the electricity company who installs it

–        Make sure that are using energy efficient appliances: fridge, light bulbs, draught proofing, pipes leak proofed etc

–        Have the meter reconfigured if going on the grid to make sure the charge is correct for what energy one is supplying, and what energy one is receiving

–        Have an inverter installed because a) convert electricity supplied from the solar panels to alternating current for power points, b) Changes the lowest voltage from solar panels to higher voltage needed by one’s appliances, c) protect one’s home from shutting down when supply is cut from the grid due to power outage/cut, d) export electricity to the grid when the solar panels are providing more electricity than one is using

Thinking about it!?

Sources:

Capiello, D. “Solar Panels on White House: Obama to Install Solar Panels in 2011.” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/10/05/solar-panels-on-white-hou_n_750525.html

“Growing Home Solar Power Market to Create 300 New Yorkshire Jobs.” http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Resources/Energy-saving-news/Renewable-energy2/Growing-home-solar-power-market-to-create-300-new-Yorkshire-jobs/%28energysavingtrust%29/801094

Okoth, D. “Africa Poised for Solar Lighting Boom.” http://www.scidev.net/en/news/africa-poised-for-solar-lighting-boom.html

Smith, L. “Solar-powered Plane Breaks World Record.”http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/solarpowered-plane-breaks-world-record-2169864.html

Smith, D. “South Africa Unveils Plans for ‘World’s Biggest’ Solar Power Plant.” http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/oct/25/south-africa-solar-power-plant

Solar Power Warranties – How to Make Sure Yours is Worth More Than the Paper It Is Written On.”http://www.solarquotes.com.au/blog/

Related Topics:

Providing Your Own Energy Supply

Behind the Food Price Crisis!

Anti-Austerity and Living on the Edge

Preparing for Life!

Finding a Global Balance

Oil vs. Communities: The Case of Peru

Oil vs. Communities: The Case of Peru

By Hwaa Irfan

This is not only about the oil that Peru has been exploited for, but also the wood for Peru is abundant in natural resources and rich in biodiversity. Ten per cent of Peru’s biodiversity contributes to the planet as a whole, so by its very existence we, no matter where we are in the world benefit. At a time when the balance of the world that supports us is delicate, to continue to plunder to feed our appetites is something we seriously need to think about and change the way in which we have chosen consciously and unconsciously to live. Who knows, the medicine that we may need to treat a new disease may be lost in the exploitation of the very resources we seek to enhance our wasteful lifestyles. As the U.S faces its Nemesis – the Gulf oil leak we should never believe that what is happening is nothing to do with us!

A Megadiverse World

Peru is classified as one of the world’s 10 megadiverse countries for it is rich in animal, plant, genetic, and other natural resources. The ecosystem which it comes under extends to the dry mid-Pacific coast into the Amazon Mountains and rain forest. On its borders with Ecuador there are unique flora and fauna, as well as animals which cannot be found anywhere else. The Andean cloud forests possess its’ own unique wealth in species. The Amazon Basin is biologically diverse and rich with a variety of forests. Home to 25,000 plant species (10% of the world’s total), only 4,400 of these species have known properties and are used locally. Peru comes top with 2,000 species of fish (10% of the world’s total), and second in bird fauna with 1,436 species. There are 222 endangered species with 31 facing extinction. British botanist, David Bellamy who was overwhelmed by the richness in Peru’s diversity and its vast genetic wealth argued that if Peru can be saved it could serve as a basis for “rehabilitating” the rest of the world.

The U.S. inventory on Peru’s wealth is as follows:

• Natural resources: Copper, gold, silver, zinc, lead, iron ore, fish, petroleum, natural gas, and forestry.

• Agriculture Products: coffee, cotton, asparagus, paprika, artichokes, sugarcane, potatoes, rice, banana, maize, poultry, milk, others.

• Exports (2008)–$31.2 billion: gold, copper, fishmeal, petroleum, zinc, textiles, apparel, asparagus, coffee, others.

• Top producer of silver, second in zinc, third in copper and tin, fourth in lead, and sixth in gold.

According to the U.S. government, the ethnic makeup of Peru is Indigenous (45%), mixed background (“mestizo”) (37%), European (15%), African, Japanese, Chinese, and other (3%). Peru is also rich in terms of the caretakers of its megadiverse land, with 14 linguistic families, 44 distinct ethnic groups, and communities which desire no contact with the outside world. Unfortunately, the common feature of most governments around the world today is their lack of genuine interest in the welfare if their population, and this is moreso the case for those countries which have the original (and only true) caretakers of the land to whom we are indebted. We have explored the case of the Niger Delta and Ecuador, so now we explore the case of Peru.

Disenfranchised like most indigenous peoples, native Peruvians are treated with scorn by non-native Peruvians who take on a false superiority complex in order to not feel bad about what they do, and the rights they claim. This takes the form of racism which reveals itself by looking down on anyone who speaks an indigenous tongue, dresses traditionally, and has any mark of tradition in their lifestyle. They are mocked, told to sit in the back of vehicles, and to humble themselves in the presence of a person of a socially recognized higher status. This includes a form of internalized racism practiced by the mistikuna (Quechua term), those of mixed race towards runakua (Quechua term), native people. This is a legacy of Spanish colonialism whose institutions today perpetuate this false sense of superiority, which was based upon the breaking up of indigenous communities whose sense of land is collective, and making the ownership of land an individual affair; thus once impoverished via a process of usurped rights, to steal, and/or purchase the land.

Peru is a signed up member of Convention 169 (International Labour Organization) – Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Independent Countries, which aims to protect indigenous peoples, and to ensure a proper consultation process is in place. It was ratified by Peru in 1994, but was effective in 1991. None of the periodic reports to ILO have been made public that is not until recently. To the dismay of Peruvian NGO’s it was found that falsified census data was submitted (the last census took place in 2005), with the aim to disguise the country’s real ethnic make-up.

Like everywhere else, wealth and position are the only recognized status to behold which transferred from the colonial master to those who were allowed to rule i.e. Creoles, and mestizos (mixed race) who make up the majority of Peru’s citizens today.

Not Just Oil and Timber

Outcast, the indigenous peoples of Peru have been excluded from playing a part in the direction of their country, when they own by birth right, live and farm 55% of the land that is Peru. Women are being sterilized without their knowledge, and land continues to be written out from under their control, as in the case of Lake Titicaca. They, the poorest, have not been allowed to have I.D’s, and have been completely ignored and neglected. The resources that are being over exploited to the detriment of the land, the biodiversity and genetic pool it supports, and the indigenous peoples are oil, and logging. There 850 mines around Peru, and most of them are in places located in the areas in which indigenous people live. The Achuar people of the Corrientes River, Loreto have been subject to the oil industry Occidental Petroleum, California, and Pluspetrol Norte, Argentina, have polluted the water ways, which is loaded with petroleum waste water, flora and fauna for nearly 30 years. Unacceptable levels of cadmium and lead have been found in the bloodstreams of the local people, especially the children. Petroleum waste water kills algae and microorganisms that fish feed on. The people are deprived of water to bath in, because the river water now causes skin problems, and have no choice but to drink it, as it is their only supply of water.

Even though the government has signed all the international agreements in terms of protecting its natural wealth, in practice this has not happened.

• 72% of the Peruvian Amazon is signed over to fossil fuel extraction

• Mining concessions to foreign investment grew to over 70% between 2002 and 2007

The Peru-United States Free Trade Agreement was signed in by President George W. Bush in 2006, and got Congressional approval in 2007. What Peru was to give beside its natural and genetic resources was no duty on 86% of U.S. exports in consumer and industrial goods, and no duty on ⅔ of U.S. farm exports. The reason it took so long to approve the agreement was because of U.S. opposition to many items. Some were appeased by the open door policy to U.S. exports, and others remained unappeased by the long term implications. Those opposing were the:

• Sierra Club
• Center for Biological Diversity
• Center for International Environmental Law
• Defenders of Wildlife
• Earthjustice
• Endangered Species Coalition
• Friends of the Earth
• Greenpeace

They felt that:

• Laws could be bypassed

• Foreign investors would get the upper hand

• “Would undermine the right of indigenous and local communities to share in the benefits derived from the vast biodiversity of the region and their own traditional knowledge of that biodiversity.”

• Undermined the Convention on Biological Diversity, thus did not protect the rights of the indigenous communities, and their knowledge base of Peruvian biodiversity as was the case with the U.S. company PureWorld Botanicals which patented, maca, a native plant species.

Successive trade agreements, particularly with the U.S. have undermined not only the people and the natural resources of Peru, but the needs of the ecosystem, the balance that must be maintained on this earth, and the future needs of the global population. It has been squarely established that the free-trade agreement only benefits the U.S. A free-trade agreement was signed with the U.S. in 2005, which opened the way for farmers – the indigenous peoples to complain.

The agreement recognizes sovereignty, and the right to protect natural resources, but when self interest comes into play, this is undermined by the following 2007 agreement concerning Intellectual Property Rights:

• “The Peru IPR [intellectual property rights] chapter contributes to a broad strengthening of Peru’s protection and enforcement of IPR. IPR is important to the prosperity of the U.S. economy and the U.S. – Peru agreement represents a significant boost for U.S. commercial interests…”

• “The agreement also advances the U.S. policy objective of ensuring that the first person who acquires a right to a trademark or a geographical indication is the person who has the right to use it”.

• All in all, the 2007 agreement made anything produced by Peru from Peru, but patented by the U.S. considered an act of piracy under copyright law i.e. concerning Intellectual Property Rights.

– Now the Tagaeri and Taromenane tribes on the Ecuadorian border of Peru have been presented with oil companies which have received concessions from the Peruvian government to drill for oil. Whereas the Ecuadorian government has set aside a reserve in this area for the Tagaeri and Taromenane tribes, Peru has not.

– The Garcia government has turned the area in which the Cabellos Largos tribe live, on Brazilian border of Peru into Petroleum Block 135, granting permission to the Pacific Rubiales Energy (Pacific Stratus Energy), Columbian-Canadian oil company the right to explore and drill for oil.

– The Isconahua tribe is an uncontacted tribe, that is a tribe that has chosen voluntary isolation from the rest of the world. They live in the hidden canyons of the Calleria River, and were granted the Isconahua Territorial Reserve (275,665 hectares of land) by the Peruvian government in 1998 at the request of the Peruvian indigenous NGO the AIDESEP. Now Garcia has gone back on that agreement and included that area into Petroleum Block 138 selling concessions to Pacific Rubiales.

– The same happened with the Murunahua/Chitonahuas people, but this time with timber. It began in 1996 with illegal logging, which led to 50% of the Murunahua dying from diseases and violence. At the request of AIDESEP in 1997, the Murunahua Reserve (482,000 hectares) was created, but illegal logging still continues within the Reserve. The Peruvian logging company, Forestal Venao have even constructed a road to transport the wood. Brazil has complained that Forestal Venao has been causing serious environmental damage to the forest and the indigenous peoples on the other side of the border with Brazil. Sixty per cent of Murunahua Reserve has been lost to logging.

– Contact with the Nahua tribe by the British-Dutch Shell Oil Company in 1980s led to the decimation of over half the tribe. What fate befalls them as Garcia’s government has handed over their land in the Kugapakori-Nahua Reserve with the building of the Camisea natural gas pipeline from which there are already frequent oil leaks polluting the rainforest.

The People Stood Up to Be Counted

The first signing of the free trade agreement caused uproar within Peru. Small farmers were not going to remain without a voice. Protests and demonstrations ensued in a country unlike before. When Law 29157 from the agreement was published in 2007, there was reason to be upset, as it called for the privatization of water, foreign investments that would affect 45 million hectares of land for the appropriation of timber, oil and mining ordering landowners to get a legally binding condition to have their land excluded. This is aided and abetted by the Peruvian President Alan Garcia who argued in a local publication that:

    “There are millions of hectares of timber lying idle, another millions of hectares that communities and associations have not and will not cultivate hundreds of mineral deposits that are not dug up and millions of hectares of ocean not used for aquaculture. The rivers that run down both sides of the mountains represent a fortune that reaches the sea without producing electricity.”

Garcia also argued that indigenous peoples of the Amazon do not have a right over land, and that the Amazon should be divided into lots and sold to those who have better use of it. Is this not the same mentality and strategy of the colonizers? Yet in 2006, Garcia told IPS News that he promised to support the indigenous famers and their families through microenterprise. By June 2007, tens of thousands of people marched to support the rights of the indigenous. They marched across country chanting:

    “In defense of the jungle — the jungle is not for sale.”

Those who stood to suffer the most, those who were the poorest, and those who have been allowed no rights in their own country cried out, but those calls were not heard at the U.S. trade debate just as the calls of thousands around the world are prevented from makin it to any debate at the global trade summits. In 2009, to quell a peaceful demonstration of 2,000 indigenous peoples of the Association for the Development of the Peruvian Jungle, helicopters and ground forces were used. The protestors had blocked roads, and had occupied oil facilities to protest the implementation of the trade agreement, i.e. extraction of gas and oil. From that protest 84 people were killed, and hundreds went missing.

As of May 2010, Murunahua Reserve has been made for uncontacted tribes, that is tribes who wish to not have any contact with the outside world. This reserve is off limits to oil and gas companies after it was open for exploration by the Brazilian company Petrobas, but at what price? This was announced in London by the Peruvian governmental body PeruPetro. At the same time 25 new lots (10 million hectares) have been allocated for oil and gas exploration. The Upper Amazon Conservancy report released July 2010 describes how the illegal logging of mahogany wood still continues in the Murunahua Reserve, with more than 80% of the Peru’s mahogany going to the U.S.

Sources:
Carlsen, L. Trade Agreement Kills Amazon Indians http://www.fpif.org/articles/trade_agreement_kills_amazon_indians

Country Profile – Peru http://www.cbd.int/countries/profile.shtml?country=pe

Indigenous Peoples: Peru http://countrystudies.us/peru/38.htm

Office of the United States Trade Representative. Peru TPA Facts. http://www.ustr.gov/sites/default/files/Significant-Intellectual-Property-Rights-(IPR)-Improvements.pdf

Our Peru Program http://natureandculture.org/htm/peru/peru.htm

Pantone, D.J. Uncontacted Amazon Indians in Peru http://www.amazon-indians.org/Uncontacted-Amazon-Indians-Peru.html

Peru-United States Free Trade Agreement http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Peru-United_States_Free_Trade_Agreement

Salazar, M. Preserve Peru’s Biodiversity, Save the World http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=46972

Salazar, M. Indigenous People, Ignored Even by the Statistics http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=35058

Survival International Oil Companies Banned from Uncontacted Tribes Reserve http://www.survivalinternational.org/news/5959

Survival International U.S. Timber Demand Threatens Uncontacted Peruvian Tribe http://www.survivalinternational.org/news/6196?utm_source=E-news+%28English%29&utm_campaign=64ecdb7bd3-July_e_news7_15_2010&utm_medium=email

U.S. State Gov. Official Name: Republic of Peru http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35762.htm

Related Topics:
Oil vs. Communities: The Case of the Niger Delta
Oil vs. Communities: The Case of Ecuador
G20 Reasons Why Your Fortune is Not Your Own!